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  1. 1
    354057
    Peer Reviewed

    Defining empowerment: perspectives from international development organisations.

    Hennink M; Kiiti N; Pillinger M; Jayakaran R

    Development in Practice. 2012 Apr; 22(2):202-215.

    Empowerment has become a mainstream concept in international development but lacks clear definition, which can undermine development initiatives aimed at strengthening empowerment as a route to poverty reduction. In the present article, written narratives from 49 international development organisations identify how empowerment is defined and operationalised in community initiatives. Results show a conceptual framework of empowerment comprising six mechanisms that foster empowerment (knowledge; agency; opportunity; capacity-building; resources; and sustainability), five domains of empowerment (health; economic; political; resource; and spiritual), and three levels (individual; community; and organisational). A key finding is the interdependence between components, indicating important programmatic implications for development initiatives.
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  2. 2
    332320

    Country-led monitoring and evaluation systems. Better evidence, better policies, better development results.

    Segone M

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE/CIS, 2009. [322] p.

    This collection of articles by UNICEF discusses how to improve evidence-based decision making in developing countries through the use of monitoring and evaluation systems. While information on programmatic best practices is available, knowledge bases in developing countries still have significant gaps. This book forges the link between learning about evidence-based policymaking and the contributions that country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can make in supporting good decision making.
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  3. 3
    293244

    Towards achieving millennium development goals in the health sector in India [editorial]

    Agarwal SP

    Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. 2005 Oct-Dec; 6(4):268-274.

    At the Millennium Summit held at the United Nations (New York) in September 2000, 189 countries reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were adopted by a consensus of experts to measure progress in all the major areas related to the well-being of people. These included extreme poverty, education, health, gender equality, and the environment. All goals are interlinked, and efforts to achieve one goal will have positive spillover effects on several others. 18 Targets and 48 Indicators have been adopted to monitor the Eight Millennium Development Goals. Of these, 8 Targets and 18 Indicators are directly related to health. While many health indicators are "truly health indicators" such as prevalence and death rates associated with malaria and tuberculosis, some are related to critical factors for health such as access to improved water supply or dietary energy consumption (health-related indicators). India is committed to achieve the Targets under the MDGs by 2015. Incidentally, certain targets have been set under the National Population Policy 2000 (NPP-2000), National Health Policy 2002 (NHP-2002), National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy 2004, and the Tenth Five Year Plan. This paper compares goals and targets mentioned in these documents vis-a-vis selected Millennium Development Goals and Targets. This also highlights the current progress towards attaining the MDGs as well as the challenges ahead. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    292333

    Local authorities backing the MDGs.

    Gateau E

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):7.

    The five-year Millennium review summit in September 2005 to speed up efforts aimed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the fight against world poverty has the support of cities and their associations around the world, including United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). While the MDGs and targets have been formulated at the global level, there is a need to bring them back home to our cities and demonstrate clearly how they can be applied at street level. With this objective in mind, the UCLG World Council met in Beijing during June 2005 to approve the UCLG Millennium Cities and Towns Campaign and the Local Governments Millennium Declaration. This campaign aims to reach thousands of cities around the globe and the declaration is testimony to our members’ collective commitment to the MDGs. Hand-in-hand with the United Nations, we are spearheading a worldwide movement towards localising the goals and targets in our cities and towns. UNHABITAT and UCLG have signed an agreement of cooperation, of which the localizing MDGs is a core component. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    275764

    Mainstreaming HIV / AIDS: a conceptual framework and implementing principles.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ]; ISA Consultants

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Jun. 18 p.

    While the concept of mainstreaming has been with us for decades, its application to the area of HIV/AIDS is more recent and represents somewhat uncharted waters. Mainstreaming, within this context, is an essential approach for expanding multi-sectoral responses to HIV/AIDS. Mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS is not an intervention per se. It constitutes a range of practical strategies for scaling up responses and addressing the developmental impacts of HIV and AIDS globally and regionally. Through mainstreaming, government sectors, NGOs, private sector entities, church organisations, etc., can both meet the needs of their own workplace environment, as well as apply their comparative advantage to support specific aspects of national HIV/AIDS responses. As with other approaches to this fast paced epidemic, understanding of mainstreaming is still evolving. This document tentatively explores the current understanding of the concept and examples of relevant experience. It provides a set of basic principles designed to enable those working at the different levels and aspects of HIV/AIDS policy and practice to begin using mainstreaming processes for expansion and acceleration of HIV/AIDS responses. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    138724

    NGO involvement in World Bank-financed social funds: lessons learned.

    Malena C

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environment Department, Social Policy and Resettlement Division, 1997 May. [5], 83 p. (Environment Department Papers Participation Series No. 052)

    This report reviews lessons learned by the World Bank (WB) about the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in WB-financed "social funds." Since 1986, the WB has channeled more than $1.3 billion to more than 30 social funds in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe to 1) mitigate the social costs of structural adjustment programs or respond to emergencies, 2) improve living conditions for impoverished people, and/or 3) promote decentralization of service delivery by building local capacity. Social funds may finance small-scale activities in the health, education, water, and sanitation sectors and/or meet basic needs, create social programs, set-up micro/credit programs to develop small enterprises, or develop infrastructure. After providing a general introduction, the report outlines the various roles that NGOs can have in implementation of social funds, the benefits and risks of such involvement, and the current extent of NGO involvement. The third section identifies the key issues and lessons learned, and section 4 reviews the principal criticisms and concerns of NGOs. Section 5 offers recommendations for improving NGO involvement in WB-financed social funds. Specific examples and case studies are highlighted throughout the report, and annexes summarize NGO involvement in selected social funds and provide a sample checklist, manual, gender action plan, implementation agreement, financing agreement, bidding document, and works contract.
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  7. 7
    138709

    Participation through intermediary NGOs.

    Carroll T; Schmidt M; Bebbington T

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1996 Feb. [2], v, 59 p. (Social Development Paper No. 12)

    This report defines types of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and identifies strategies for identifying participatory NGOs. It also discusses capacity building, the tension between service delivery and capacity building, the potential to increase the scale of activity among NGOs, project or process development, and linkages between NGOs and government. The World Bank now aims to foster more participatory community-based development among development-oriented NGOs trying to reduce poverty. Development-oriented NGOs tend to have the strongest grassroots links and the greatest experience reaching disadvantaged groups with innovative methods. The World Bank has historically ignored participatory processes. The challenge is to locate NGOs willing to collaborate and those that have sufficient capacity to meet goals; to support the participatory character of NGOs; and to help reduce friction in styles with the operations of the World Bank and governments. Highly participatory NGOs tend to work on a very small scale. Another challenge is to build the institutional capacity of NGO partners. The usual management training is unsuitable and insufficient for NGO needs. History, politics, and ideology define the differences in links between governments and NGOs. Partners may be constrained by government attitudes and regulations. The cases confirm the importance of a clear, shared understanding of partner NGO roles; a flexible, staged process of collaboration; opportunities for strong, relatively homogenous common interest-based groups; a supportive, nonintrusive state context; and a shared view and willingness to cooperate among major donors.
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