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Strengthening the capacity of community health workers to deliver care for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 20 p.Government institutions, United Nations agencies, and global partners have been repositioning the role that community health workers (CHWs) can play in increasing access to essential quality health services in the context of national primary health care and universal health coverage. Given the growing momentum and interest in training CHWs, the United Nations health agencies (H4+) have developed this technical brief to orient country programme managers and global partners as to key elements for strengthening the capacity of CHWs, including health system and programmatic considerations, core competencies, and evidence-informed interventions for CHWs along the SR/MNCAH continuum of care. These key elements need to be adapted and contextualized by countries to reflect the structure, gaps, and opportunities of the national primary health care system, the interaction between the health sector with other sectors, and the specific roles and competencies that CHWs already have within that system. These key elements should also guide H4+ members and partners to take a joint and harmonized approach to supporting countries in their capacity-development efforts. Annex 1 lists SR/MNCAH interventions that CHWs can perform based on the best available evidence and existing WHO guidance.
Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . vi, 27 p.This framework was developed to help address persistent gender inequality and human rights violations. These violations put women and girls at greater risk of HIV and threaten the gains that have been made in preventing HIV transmission and increasing access to antiretroviral treatment.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2008 Jan. 27 p.The EDUCAIDS Framework for Action: 1) Articulates what is EDUCAIDS; 2) Outlines components of a comprehensive education sector response; 3) Proposes methods to plan and proritise actions, improve coordination and build partnerships among key education sector stakeholders; and 4) Provides an overview of implementation support tools. This version of the EDUCAIDS Framework for Action is an update of the previous version, taking into account feedback from recent regional and sub-regional meetings and workshops involving 39 countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, ASAP, 2008. 30 p.This ASAP Business Plan sets out the operational direction for 2008-2009 of the UNAIDS AIDS Strategy and Action Plan service. It presents the history of ASAP, explains how ASAP is governed, and describes operational achievements to date. These have included delivery of 15 peer reviews, provision of technical support to 29 countries, development of four technical tools for country use and initiation of a capacity building program. The document also presents conclusions of the ASAP Assessment which found that: ASAP had generally met the expectations set out in the ASAP Business Plan for 2006-07 in terms of the quantity and quality of work and adherence to agreed operating principles; ASAP is on track to meet the quantitative goal for technical support, development of tools, and capacity building; The mix of technical support has been stronger than anticipated on broad strategic planning and less on action planning, reflecting the relatively low demand received by ASAP in this area to date; ASAP outputs have been good, especially the peer reviews, the Self-Assessment Tool, and the planning effort for the capacity building program; The review noted that is was not possible to assess ASAP's impact on the quality of strategic and action planning at this early stage in the program; Finally, the assessment pointed out that since ASAP has already fully committed funds for capacity building and for the MEAN program, there is sufficient funding for new country requests only through the second quarter of 2008. (excerpt)
A nongovernmental organization's national response to HIV: the work of the All-Ukrainian Network of People Living with HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.23E; JC1305E)The All-Ukrainian Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (the 'Network') was formed in the late 1990s by HIV-positive individuals alarmed at the surging HIV epidemic in their country and the lack of resources and support for themselves and others living with the virus. It has grown rapidly and steadily since then, providing services and support to more than 14 000 people living with HIV. Its roots are in the self-help ethos, based on the belief that people living with HIV must be directly involved in leading national and local responses to HIV. The Network's four key strategy components are: increasing access to non-medical care, treatment and support; lobbying and advocating to protect the rights of people living with HIV; seeking to increase acceptance towards people living with HIV throughout society; and enhancing the organizational capacity of the Network. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Jun; 8(1):3-4.EDUCATION PROGRAMMES for young people can be intricately linked to development goals (left). This was illustrated in a document released last year based on a technical review of UNFPA's three-decade experience in Population Education (PopEd). UNFPA PopEd programmes could be categorized into: 1) Population and Family Life Education; 2) Sexuality Education; and 3) Life Skills Education. Common elements of all programmes are: advocacy to promote an enabling socio-political environment; capacity-building through teacher training and development of curriculum and materials; and peer education. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UN-OHRLLS, .  p.Roughly a quarter of the world’s countries are classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs), who remain the most vulnerable and weakest segment of the international community, of these 34 are in Africa, 15 in Asia-Pacific and one in the Caribbean. It is now clear that without achieving a huge acceleration in their development efforts, few global development targets can be met. The AIDS pandemic is worsening the prospects of LDCs as many of the hardest hit countries are facing massive financial and human resource constraints. These countries by definition have limited resources to generate sufficient economic and social development, and as such are at greater risk. HIV/AIDS is eroding these limited resources and affecting the most productive people so urgently needed for development. In other words, HIV/AIDS affects the present and future human and institutional capacities of countries and consequently their capacity to generate economic and social development. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2001 Aug.  p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No.1)The purpose of this Programme Brief series is to provide staff, particularly field staff, with concise and useful information in supporting countries in their response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV Prevention Now Programme Brief No.1 - Overview, is intended to summarize the importance of prevention in combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic and baseline strategies for UNFPA programme response at the country level. Upcoming briefs will focus on substantive areas including prevention of HIV infection in mothers and its transmission to their children, young people, condom programming, gender, emergency situations, population policy, and population based data. (excerpt)
Enhancing support of African development - includes a definition of the African Initiative - Special Initiative on Africa - Cover story.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Summer; 33(2): p..The Special Initiative on Africa, launched globally on 15 March by the Secretary-General along with the executive heads of all UN agencies and organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), aims to give practical expression to the policy commitments made in the past, such as the UN New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s. Unprecedented in scope, the Initiative reflects the priority accorded to Africa's development by the international community, the mandates emanating from the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and major UN conferences, as well as the undertakings made individually and collectively by African Governments to accelerate the development of their countries. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in collaboration with the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), organized an international meeting on "Advocacy and Resource Mobilization towards the Successful Implementation of the 2010 Round (2005-2014) of Population and Housing Censuses in Developing Countries" in New York on 24 and 25 February 2005. The meeting was attended by 64 participants from various United Nations agencies and affiliates, national statistics/census offices, bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and academic and technical organizations. The meeting also included representatives from developing country governmental policy-making and funding organizations. The meeting focused on: 1) a review of the problem areas experienced in the 2000 Round of Censuses, including the serious under-utilization and poor dissemination of census results at the national and sub-national levels; 2) a description of the 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses; 3) a discussion of proposed strategies for the successful implementation of the 2010 Round of Censuses; and 4) the development of an advocacy and resource mobilization plan for the 2010 Round, which identifies the resources needed to ensure successful implementation of the 2010 Round and emphasizes the value of censuses in measuring progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Aug. 35 p. (UNAIDS/05.18E)The primary goal of this paper is to energize and mobilize an intensification of HIV prevention with an ultimate aim of universal access to HIV prevention and treatment. The paper defines the central actions that must be taken to arrest the spread of new HIV infections and to turn the tide against AIDS. It identifies what needs to be done to speedily and effectively bridge the HIV prevention gap, building on synergies between HIV prevention and care, and to ensure the sustainability of HIV treatment scale-up in the present context. It highlights the role of UNAIDS in relation to intensifying HIV prevention and points to ways in which jointly supportive action can be achieved. This paper is directed towards all those who have a leadership role in HIV prevention, treatment and care. Its foundations lie in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS endorsed by all member states of the United Nations in June 2001 and the Global Strategy Framework on HIV/AIDS endorsed by the 10th meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board in Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. The paper also builds upon commitments expressed in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action and the Beijing Platform for Action, together with their follow-up reviews. It highlights significant opportunities for a strengthening of HIV prevention in the context of antiretroviral programmes such as the "3 by 5" Initiative to expand HIV antiretroviral treatment in developing countries. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 May. 51 p. (UNAIDS/05.08E)Partners engaged in the global, national and local responses to AIDS have agreed on the "Three Ones"--one national AIDS framework, one national AIDS authority and one system for monitoring and evaluation--as guiding principles for improving the country-level response. This report describes how far the partners have moved from principle to practice and points to the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Its aim is to inform and provoke discussion and debate as all the partners--all levels of government, bilateral and multilateral donors, international institutions, and civil society--seek answers to the question, "How can we, individually and collectively, make optimal use of the limited resources available to us, improve our response to the AIDS epidemic and accelerate our progress toward achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?" (excerpt)
Health Promotion International. 2005; 20(1):1-6.Millions of young people in the developing world never achieve two decades of life, let alone seven, and so it is with mixed feelings that Health Promotion International celebrates its 20th birthday this issue. Much has been written and said about the antecedents and milestones of the health promotion phenomenon, but what is clear from history is that any rapidly growing movement or organization needs to re-invigorate its purpose for existence as well as build its capacity for success. This is vital if health promotion is to be truly a response to both national and global challenges. The forthcoming Bangkok Conference and foreshadowed Bangkok Conference will seek to fill this gap. (excerpt)
Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Injuries and Violence Protection, 2004.  p.Interpersonal violence is violence between individuals or small groups of individuals. It is an insidious and frequently deadly social problem and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse. It takes place in the home, on the streets and in other public settings, in the workplace, and in institutions such as schools, hospitals and residential care facilities. The direct and indirect financial costs of such violence are staggering, as are the social and human costs that cause untold damage to the economic and social fabric of communities. With the publication in 2002 of the World report on violence and health, an initial sense of the global extent of the interpersonal violence problem was provided, and the central yet frequently overlooked role of the health sector in preventing such violence and treating its victims was made explicit. The report clearly showed that investing in multi-sectoral strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence is not only a moral imperative but also makes sound scientific, economic, political and social sense, and that health sector leadership is both appropriate and essential given the clear public health dimensions of the problem and its solutions. The report also reviewed the increasing evidence that primary prevention efforts which target the root causes and situational determinants of interpersonal violence are both effective and cost-effective. In support of such approaches, the report recommended six country-level activities, namely: 1. Increasing the capacity for collecting data on violence. 2. Researching violence – its causes, consequences and prevention. 3. Promoting the primary prevention of violence. 4. Promoting gender and social equality and equity to prevent violence. 5. Strengthening care and support services for victims. 6. Bringing it all together – developing a national action plan of action. (excerpt)
Expanding capacity for operations research in reproductive health: summary report of a consultative meeting, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, December 10-11, 2001.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003.  p.A major issue in providing health care is to ensure that the recipients of reproductive health services and technology—clients—optimally benefit from these services. Over the next decade, operations research will be a crucial tool for evaluating and developing new programmes. The tools or guidelines for addressing mortality and morbidity, improving reproductive health, and preventing and managing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are available. However, programme managers need ways to show how to deploy these tools in the most effective and cost-effective manner. Operations research plays a key role in providing this evidence and guiding the process. However, this complex research will require collaboration from scientists and institutions from a wide range of fields, including epidemiology, biomedicine, economics, and the social sciences. The challenge of this collaboration is to develop an evidence-based culture among providers, programme managers, and policy-makers. Its ultimate goal is to contribute to improved delivery of reproductive health services. (excerpt)
Population ageing and development: social, health and gender issues. Report of an Expert Group Meeting, Population Ageing and Development: Social, Health and Gender Issues with a Focus on the Poor in Old Age, 29-31 October 2001, Valletta, Malta. [Envejecimiento de la población y desarrollo: aspectos sociales, de salud y de género. Informe de la reunión del Grupo de Expertos sobre Envejecimiento y Desarrollo: aspectos sociales, de salud y de género centrado en los pobres en la vejez, 29-31 de octubre de 2001, Valletta, Malta]
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002 Apr. x, 93 p. (Population and Development Strategies Series No. 3)Professor Fenech welcomed participants of the Expert Group Meeting on Population Ageing and Development, convened in Malta by the United Nations Population Fund in collaboration with the UN Programme on Ageing, HelpAge International and the AARR He stated that INIA was proud to host the event. "This three-day international expert group meeting is particularly timely and important, for during these three days, we will explore the approaches and programmes that are meaningful and necessary to address the needs of the older poor and frail, especially those living in developing countries. It is hoped that at the end of the meeting there will be a set of recommendations which could be presented at the Second World Assembly on Ageing in Madrid in April next year. I am confident that we are going to have a most productive and fruitful meeting". (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environment Department, Social Policy and Resettlement Division, 1997 May. , 83 p. (Environment Department Papers Participation Series No. 052)This report reviews lessons learned by the World Bank (WB) about the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in WB-financed "social funds." Since 1986, the WB has channeled more than $1.3 billion to more than 30 social funds in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe to 1) mitigate the social costs of structural adjustment programs or respond to emergencies, 2) improve living conditions for impoverished people, and/or 3) promote decentralization of service delivery by building local capacity. Social funds may finance small-scale activities in the health, education, water, and sanitation sectors and/or meet basic needs, create social programs, set-up micro/credit programs to develop small enterprises, or develop infrastructure. After providing a general introduction, the report outlines the various roles that NGOs can have in implementation of social funds, the benefits and risks of such involvement, and the current extent of NGO involvement. The third section identifies the key issues and lessons learned, and section 4 reviews the principal criticisms and concerns of NGOs. Section 5 offers recommendations for improving NGO involvement in WB-financed social funds. Specific examples and case studies are highlighted throughout the report, and annexes summarize NGO involvement in selected social funds and provide a sample checklist, manual, gender action plan, implementation agreement, financing agreement, bidding document, and works contract.