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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.

    Kabra R; Ali M; Kiarie J

    Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.

    BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
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  2. 2

    The art of knowledge exchange: a results-focused planning guide for development practitioners.

    Kumar S; Leonard A

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, [2011]. [94] p. (\)

    Designing and implementing knowledge exchange initiatives can be a big undertaking. This guide takes the guesswork out of the process by breaking it down into simple steps and providing tools to help you play a more effective role as knowledge connector and learning facilitator. It will help you: identify and assess capacity development needs; design and develop an appropriate knowledge exchange initiative that responds to those needs; implement the knowledge exchange initiative; measure and report the results.
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  3. 3

    Systems thinking for health systems strengthening.

    de Savigny D; Adam T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2009. [112] p.

    Over 2008, wide global consultation revealed considerable interest and frustration among researchers, funders and policy-makers around our limited understanding of what works in health systems strengthening. In this current Flagship Report we introduce and discuss the merits of employing a systems thinking approach in order to catalyze conceptual thinking regarding health systems, system-level interventions, and evaluations of health system strengthening. The Report sets out to answer the following broad questions: What is systems thinking and how can researchers and policy-makers apply it? How can we use this perspective to better understand and exploit the synergies among interventions to strengthen health systems? How can systems thinking contribute to better evaluations of these system-level interventions? This Report argues that a stronger systems perspective among designers, implementers, stewards and funders is a critical component in strengthening overall health-sector development in low- and middle-income countries. (Excerpt)
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  4. 4

    From inception to large scale: the Geracao Biz Programme in Mozambique.

    Hainsworth G; Zilhao I; Badiani R; Gregorio D; Jamisse L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)

    This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
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  5. 5

    Engaging faith-based organizations in HIV prevention. A training manual for programme managers.

    Toure A; Melek M; Jato M; Kane M; Kajungu R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007. [53] p.

    The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Optimizing resource allocation for HIV prevention. Regional Initiative FY04-05. Concept note.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, [2004]. [4] p.

    HIV infection has taken root in South Asia, and poses a serious threat to development and poverty alleviation efforts in the region. The current trend of increasing HIV infections, combined with heightened social and economic vulnerabilities that are fueled by massive population movements (cross-border/rural-urban migration and trafficking), a pervasive sex industry, and the presence of injecting drug use, highlights the urgent need to act quickly and effectively. Denial of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has led to devastating economic and social consequences, which are now well documented. Recognizing this potential threat, South Asian countries, with the support of the donor community, have intensified the fight against HIV/AIDS; the speed, level, and quality of response, however, continue to vary across the region. There is a need for sustained advocacy to increase political commitment and for operationally relevant analytic work to improve the technical efficiency and effectiveness of the national programs. Financial resources to fight HIV/AIDS in South Asia have increased significantly over the past few years, with new donors such as the Global Fund and the Gates Foundation taking a greater prominence in supporting country efforts. Resource constraints, however, remain; as there is a growing demand, as well as increasing commitment, of the national programs to provide anti-retro viral treatment, and at the same time, scale up prevention. As such, South Asian countries recognize the importance of making better decisions for how best to allocate resources available for HIV/AIDS prevention. There is, however, a need to strengthen capacity of the national programs to undertake analysis and to utilize this information for policy formulation and program design. The World Bank, being the leader in providing economic advice on AIDS, has a clear and strong comparative advantage, in relation to other agencies, including UN partners and bilaterals, to assist the South Asia region in addressing this need. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Latin American and Caribbean Network on Strategic Planning and AIDS, REDPES. UNAIDS case study. REDPES, Red de planificación estratégica y SIDA de América Latina y el Caribe. Estudio de caso de ONUSIDA.

    Herrera C; Morrison K; Negroni M; Bronfman M

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2003 Feb. 25 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/03.13E)

    The objective of this case study is to document the Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Planificación Estratégica en SIDA (REDPES) experience so that it may serve as a reference guide for similar initiatives in other regions and describe the role of REDPES in promoting strategic planning for HIV/AIDS. As the only strategic planning network for H/V/AIDS worldwide, REDPES can use the lessons learned during its brief history, challenges and accomplishments to inform the development of similar networks in other regions. This document describes the background and context of the network's founding. It provides a brief history, describing the main activities and accomplishments, noting principal problems encountered and lessons learned, and discusses the principal collaborations and strategic alliances formed to sustain the network, as well as the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms utilized. It also presents future strategies and challenges for REDPES. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    UNFPA fifth country programme of assistance to the government of Kenya, 1997 to 2001. Framework for the reproductive health sub-programme.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Kenya Field Office

    [Unpublished] 1997 Dec. xiii, 32 p.

    This project between the UN Population Fund and Kenya's Ministry of Health proposes to strengthen technical and institutional capacity at all levels in the effective provision of reproductive health (RH) services during 1997-2001. The aims are to increase quality and accessibility of RH by a specific percentage, to reduce maternal mortality by 20%, to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality by 30%, and to increase contraceptive prevalence by 20% in selected districts and Nairobi slums. The aims are also to provide youth-appropriate RH services, to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, and to intensify IEC activities in support of RH services and other activities. This proposal describes the background, justification, and health reforms in Kenya; the RH achievements and lessons learned; selected issues to be addressed in the national RH program; goals; strategies and activities; monitoring and evaluation; the institutional framework; related activities and funding sources; and the summary budget. The budget will be shared between the Government (60%) and implementing nongovernmental organizations (40%). About 10% will be directed to IEC. The total summary budget is US$13 million. The main strategy for preventing STIs and HIV/AIDS is to integrate the education within day-to-day activities of health staff and to train service providers (SPs) at all levels. Surgical gloves and male-friendly services will be provided to all SP points. Technical support will be provided by advisers in Addis Ababa, selected national consultants, and field office program staff.
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  9. 9

    UNFPA fifth country programme of assistance to Kenya, 1997 to 2001. Strengthening reproductive health planning and management capacity of Ministry of Health.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1998 Feb. [3], 43, [25] p.

    This proposal describes a reproductive health (RH) program during 1997-2001 in Kenya that is supported by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The program builds upon prior achievements and lessons learned and supports the Ministry of Health (MOH) in efforts to strengthen the MOH's RH planning and management capacity. The project aims to strengthen institutional capacity; increase access and quality of integrated RH services; and address issues of safe motherhood, sexual and RH of adolescents and youth, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, and IEC. It is expected that by 2001, 38% of service delivery points will have been strengthened with integrated RH services. 6% of other services will be upgraded for closing the distance within 5 km to services among 25% of women who lack such access. The maternal mortality ratio will be reduced by 20%. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates will be reduced by 30%. Contraceptive prevalence will be increased by 20% in selected districts and Nairobi slums. Adolescents should have more accurate and appropriate information, counseling, and services. The program should have increased community awareness of STIs and HIV/AIDS, counseling, and health facilities for reducing transmission of STIs. IEC should have been intensified by 2001. This proposal includes a description of the logical framework, the background-justification, project goals, strategies, institutional framework, advance preparations, government follow-up, UNFPA assistance and input, projected budget, justification of government input, and other related activities and funding.
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