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Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.
Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2016 Mar.  p.The "last missing piece" to complete the architecture of the 2030 sustainable development agenda is to adopt a comprehensive framework of progress indicators to guide countries’ efforts to reach the Goals by 2030. This article explains the challenges of collecting the indicator data.
A decade of investments in monitoring the HIV epidemic: how far have we come? A descriptive analysis.
Health Research Policy and Systems. 2014; 12:62.BACKGROUND: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment (DoC) adopted by the General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) included a call to monitor national responses to the HIV epidemic. Since the DoC, efforts and investments have been made globally to strengthen countries' HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity. This analysis aims to quantify HIV M&E investments, commitments, capacity, and performance during the last decade in order to assess the success and challenges of national and global HIV M&E systems. METHODS: M&E spending and performance was assessed using data from UNGASS country progress reports. The National Composite Policy Index (NCPI) was used to measure government commitment, government engagement, partner/civil society engagement, and data generation, as well as to generate a composite HIV M&E System Capacity Index (MESCI) score. Analyses were restricted to low and middle income countries (LMICs) who submitted NCPI reports in 2006, 2008, and 2010 (n = 78). RESULTS: Government commitment to HIV M&E increased considerably between 2006 and 2008 but decreased between 2008 and 2010. The percentage of total AIDS spending allocated to HIV M&E increased from 1.1% to 1.4%, between 2007 and 2010, in high-burden LMICs. Partner/civil society engagement and data generation capacity improved between 2006 and 2010 in the high-burden countries. The HIV MESCI increased from 2006 to 2008 in high-burden countries (78% to 94%), as well as in other LMICs (70% to 77%), and remained relatively stable in 2010 (91% in high-burden countries, 79% in other LMICs). Among high-burden countries, M&E system performance increased from 52% in 2006 to 89% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The last decade has seen increased commitments and spending on HIV M&E, as well as improved M&E capacity and more available data on the HIV epidemic in both high-burden and other LMICs. However, challenges remain in the global M&E of the AIDS epidemic as we approach the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets.
Technical support facilities: Helping to build an efficient and sustainable AIDS response. UNAIDS TSF 5 years report, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS / JC2167E)This report highlights the role that the Technical Support Facilities (TSF) have played in Africa and Asia to strengthen countries capacities to fund, plan, manage and coordinate effective, larger scale HIV programs. Established by UNAIDS in 2005, the TSFs have provided support to over 70 countries through 50,000 days of technical assistance and capacity development.
Country-led monitoring and evaluation systems. Better evidence, better policies, better development results.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE/CIS, 2009.  p.This collection of articles by UNICEF discusses how to improve evidence-based decision making in developing countries through the use of monitoring and evaluation systems. While information on programmatic best practices is available, knowledge bases in developing countries still have significant gaps. This book forges the link between learning about evidence-based policymaking and the contributions that country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can make in supporting good decision making.
The Fistula Fortnight: Healing Wounds, Renewing Hope, 21 February - 6 March 2005, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . 46 p.The Fistula Fortnight accomplished a number of goals: it mobilized resources for obstetric fistula and safe motherhood; increased public awareness that fistula is preventable; contributed to combating the marginalization of women who suffer from fistula; strengthened institutional capacity to manage fistula; and began to address the broader needs of women living with the disability. While the surgeries conducted represent only a small portion of the backlog, the Fistula Fortnight provided a strategic opportunity to raise awareness and motivate action among policymakers, national and local leaders, and the general public about the need to increase efforts to both prevent and treat fistula. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
Decentralising HIV M&E in Africa. Country experiences and implementation options in building and sustaining sub-national HIV M&E systems, in the context of local government reforms and decentralised HIV responses.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2007 Aug. 10 p. (HIV / AIDS M&E -- Getting Results)In operationalising the 3rd of the Three Ones - One HIV M&E system, a growing number of countries in Africa are opting to decentralise their national HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. This decentralization is primarily driven by other decentralisation processes happening within government, and by the fact that the HIV response itself is changing towards less centralized intervention and increased community ownership. Decentralisation of national HIV M&E systems is an arduous and resource intensive process, but experience has shown that it is essential to decentralise M&E functions as HIV services are rolled out. This note summarizes the experience of countries that are decentralizing their national HIV M&E systems and describes how it can be done. It defines decentralization, discusses the rationale and benefits of decentralizing the HIV response, and key factors to take into account when doing so. Decentralizing the HIV M&E system is linked to decentralizing the HIV response. The note describes how each of the 12 components of a HIV M&E system can be decentralized, with country examples. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136): p.The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
Vienna, Austria, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006.  p.The present Toolkit was prepared because there is still much to be learned about what works best to prevent and combat human trafficking under various circumstances. It presents a selection of conceptual, legislative and organizational tools in use in different parts of the world. The Toolkit is based on the premise that the problem of trafficking in persons, whether at the national or local level, can only be addressed effectively on the basis of comprehensive strategies that are based on human rights and that take into account the transnational nature of the problem, the many associated criminal activities, the frequent involvement of organized criminal groups and the profound pain, fear and damage suffered by the victims. Although the Toolkit offers a few examples of comprehensive national strategies, most of the tools that it offers focus on one specific aspect of the comprehensive response required. Individual tools may be used to develop comprehensive strategies, or to augment or strengthen some of the essential components of existing ones. Many of these tools will need to be adapted to national or local circumstances. None of the tools, by itself, is sufficient to provide an effective response to the problem. (excerpt)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Feb. 79 p. (UNAIDS/05.28E)This report summarizes UNAIDS' assistance to countries in 2004 and 2005. Drawn from the reports of UNAIDS' Country Coordinators from over 75 countries, the report is divided into five chapters. Basic information on UNAIDS and how it operates, especially at country-level. How UNAIDS is contributing to implementation of the "Three Ones" principles. The many ways in which UNAIDS has assisted countries in strengthening their responses to AIDS. How UNAIDS is working to enhance the United Nations system's capacity to assist countries in responding to AIDS. How UNAIDS plans to meet key challenges for the future. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 May. 51 p. (UNAIDS/05.08E)Partners engaged in the global, national and local responses to AIDS have agreed on the "Three Ones"--one national AIDS framework, one national AIDS authority and one system for monitoring and evaluation--as guiding principles for improving the country-level response. This report describes how far the partners have moved from principle to practice and points to the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Its aim is to inform and provoke discussion and debate as all the partners--all levels of government, bilateral and multilateral donors, international institutions, and civil society--seek answers to the question, "How can we, individually and collectively, make optimal use of the limited resources available to us, improve our response to the AIDS epidemic and accelerate our progress toward achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?" (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.12)CAH has continued to strengthen catalytic linkages with other WHO departments, UN agencies, bilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private voluntary organizations and foundations. These partners play an important role in assessing the need for strategies for child and adolescent health and development and in supporting their implementation. Strong collaboration exists with a range of partners inside and outside WHO. It is through these partnerships that CAH is able to build capacity and extend the application of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and adolescent health and development interventions. This progress report provides an informative summary of the work of the Department midway through the current biennium. Chapter 1 describes the Department’s global priorities in child and adolescent health, and efforts to address them. Chapters 2–4 summarize the year’s work in three topic areas—promoting a safe and supportive environment, improving health service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. The final chapter describes collaboration with partners and continuing efforts to expand capacity for sound public health programming at all levels. A full programme report will be prepared at the close of the 2000–2001 biennium. The CAH staff in Headquarters, in the Regional Offices and in countries invite you to read this report, make suggestions, and join us in our efforts to mobilize the global community in promoting the health of children and adolescents. In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have provided support to our activities, both technical and financial. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jun.  p. (UNAIDS/04.35E)This progress report summarizes the achievements of CRD (Country and Regional Support Department) in 2003 and presents selected highlights in greater detail. The first section outlines the strategic framework for action, Directions for the Future, the status of its implementation, the associated capacity strengthening of UNAIDS at country level, and challenges for 2004 and the next biennium. Text boxes in this section highlight “UNAIDS corporate tools” employed to implement the strategic framework. The second section reviews CRD’s efforts to translate global initiatives into results at country level. UNAIDS is involved in numerous global initiatives, three, which required particular involvement of UNAIDS resources at country level, are highlighted here. The third section reviews regional progress towards implementing the strategic framework for action. The examples cited, whilst not being an exhaustive review of country work, illustrate how UNAIDS has worked as a catalyst for national AIDS response. This report concludes with a collection of two-page country situation and progress summaries from 70 of the 134 countries with the UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001 Jun. 29 p.The World Health Organization as an intergovernmental specialised agency has the task and challenge to support its member governments in strengthening their capacity to steer their health systems. This figures prominently in the recent World Health Report, in which stewardship is ranked as the most important of the health system functions. In the Report, stewardship is defined as a “function of a government responsible for the welfare of the population, and concerned about the trust and legitimacy with which its activities are viewed by the citizenry”. This overview on capacity building covers the recent thinking on the issue and provides information relevant to strengthening capacities also in the stewardship role of the governments. This paper is written primarily to the participants of a WHO project which aims to develop, in partnership with countries, ways to support senior policy makers and managers of health systems. Major developments have taken place in capacity building during the 1990s. Most information on the topic is recent and appears in grey literature. This overview aims to present the current knowledge on the concepts and practice in capacity building. The first part of the document discusses some major changes in the international thinking. The second part links the concepts and frameworks to the state of the art in practising capacity building. (excerpt)