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Teddington, United Kingdom, Tearfund, 2008 Jul. 44 p.This report provides an overview of PMTCT and is an attempt to explore what is working, and why, in scaling up access. The report captures innovative examples of successful programming and partnerships, while identifying challenges and bottlenecks that must be overcome if these countries are to meet their nationally set universal access targets by 2010. The research methodology used for this report was based on a desk review, interviews with key global informants (see Acknowledgements) and country case studies in Malawi, Nigeria and Zambia in early 2008. The in-country study included semi-structured interviews with representatives of government and nongovernmental organisations as well as focus group discussions with community representatives, participatory and observational methodologies. The main objectives of the research were to: 1) identify and conduct interviews with the key international and national stakeholders and explore the structure, components, implementation, co-ordination, financing, policies, and guidelines and monitoring system of the PMTCT programmes; 2) determine what was working well and why; and 3) identify specific bottlenecks, challenges and recommendations for progress. This report provides an overview of the perceptions of key experts and communities on PMTCT interventions and approaches, current global action and country progress.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov.  p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Jul; 84(7):506.June 2006 marks the 25th anniversary of a report of five cases of Pneumocystis carinii (now jirovecii) pneumonia in men who have sex with men, heralding the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over 65 million infections with the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have now caused at least 25 million deaths. Following recognition at the XI International Conference on AIDS in 1996, that combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically improves survival, various initiatives have helped to bring treatment to people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Although the target of treating 3 m people by the end of 2005 (WHO's "3 by 5" initiative) was not reached, about 1.3 m people now receive ART in low- and middle-income countries. Major lessons from the initiative include the utility of country-owned targets in mobilizing efforts and promoting accountability, the need for extensive partnerships to scale up activities, the importance of identifying and resolving health systems constraints, the challenges of ensuring equity, and the synergy between treatment initiatives and a simultaneous scaling-up of HIV prevention. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service is a network that aims to increase access to good quality and effective treatments for HIV/AIDS by improving supply of antiretroviral medicines and diagnostics in developing countries. Goals: To ensure that the supply of quality commodities is never an obstacle to expanding treatment, care and support; To use improved commodity supply to catalyze rapid expansion of treatment, to promote equity, and to support prevention. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. 228 p. (UNAIDS/04.16E)Every two years, on the occasion of the International Conference on AIDS, this Global Report sets out our current knowledge on the state of the epidemic based on the experiences of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), which comprises nine United Nations system agencies. It makes for sobering reading. Far from levelling off, rates of infection are still on the rise in many countries in Sub- Saharan Africa. Indeed, in 2003 alone, an estimated 3 million people in the region became newly infected. Most alarmingly, new epidemics appear to be advancing unchecked in other regions, notably Eastern Europe and Asia. Countries in Eastern Europe and East Asia are experiencing the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world. The large, populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. General prevalence is low there, but this masks serious epidemics already under way in individual provinces, territories and states. AIDS is the most globalized epidemic in history, and we are witnessing its growing ‘feminization’. Every year brings an increase in the number of women infected with HIV. Globally, nearly half of all persons infected between the ages of 15 to 49 are women. In Africa, the proportion is reaching 60%. Because of gender inequality, women living with HIV or AIDS often experience greater stigma and discrimination. Yet this is a problem with a solution. As our report indicates, we know what works—successful approaches are evolving locally, nationally and globally. They are being helped by the growing momentum of international political leadership, by business workplace programmes, and by the dynamic mobilization of affected communities themselves—a key element that remains at the heart of our global response. (excerpt)