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Reproductive Health. 2015 Sep 18; 12(90):1-13.Background Young people make up for 24.5 % of Latin America’s population. Inadequate supply of specific and timely sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and sexuality education for young people increases their risk of sexual and reproductive ill health. Colombia is one of the few countries in Latin America that has implemented and scaled up specific and differentiated health and SRH services-termed as its Youth Friendly Health Services (YFHS) Model. Objective To provide a systematic description of the crucial factors that facilitated and hindered the scale up process of the YFHS Model in Colombia. Methods A comprehensive literature search on SRH services for young people and national efforts to improve their quality of care in Colombia and neighbouring countries was carried out along with interviews with a selection of key stakeholders. The information gathered was analysed using the World Health Organization-ExpandNet framework (WHO-ExpandNet). Results/Discussion In 7 years (2007-2013) of the implementation of the YFHS Model in Colombia more than 800 clinics nationally have been made youth friendly. By 2013, 536 municipalities in 32 departments had YFHS, resulting in coverage of 52 % of municipalities offering YHFS. The analysis using the WHO-ExpandNet framework identified five elements that enabled the scale up process: Clear policies and implementation guidelines on YFHS, clear attributes of the user organization and resource team, establishment and implementation of an inter-sectoral and interagency strategy, identification of and support to stakeholders and advocates of YFHS, and solid monitoring and evaluation. The elements that limited or slowed down the scale up effort were: Insufficient number of health personnel trained in youth health and SRH, a high turnover of health personnel, a decentralized health security system, inadequate supply of financial and human resources, and negative perceptions among community members about providing SRH information and services to young people. Conclusion Colombia’s experience shows that for large-scale implementation of youth health programmes, clear policies and implementation guidelines, support from institutional leaders and authorities who become champions of YFHS, continuous training of health personnel, and inclusion of users in the design and monitoring of these services are key.
Contemporary Politics. 2012 Jun; 18(2):186-199.Capacity-building has become a mainstay of many AIDS and public health programmes. This article examines its impact on civil society organisations and claims-making around citizenship, as these have been articulated through heterogeneous policy networks doing HIV prevention work. Drawing on a growing literature on the Foucauldian notions of biopower and governmentality, the genealogy of capacity-building as a globalised technology of governmentality is traced, examining its uses both at the international level and in Brazil. Brazilian civil society organisations have undoubtedly been transformed by their participation in networks carrying out capacity-building projects. While recognising these effects, the conflicts and productive tensions inherent to such networks are highlighted.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2009.  p.Over 2008, wide global consultation revealed considerable interest and frustration among researchers, funders and policy-makers around our limited understanding of what works in health systems strengthening. In this current Flagship Report we introduce and discuss the merits of employing a systems thinking approach in order to catalyze conceptual thinking regarding health systems, system-level interventions, and evaluations of health system strengthening. The Report sets out to answer the following broad questions: What is systems thinking and how can researchers and policy-makers apply it? How can we use this perspective to better understand and exploit the synergies among interventions to strengthen health systems? How can systems thinking contribute to better evaluations of these system-level interventions? This Report argues that a stronger systems perspective among designers, implementers, stewards and funders is a critical component in strengthening overall health-sector development in low- and middle-income countries. (Excerpt)
Coordination, management and utilization of foreign assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention in Vietnam. Assessment report.
Ha Noi, Vietnam, CCRD, 2006 Oct. 82 p. (CCRD Assesssment Report)International assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam has significantly contributed to combating this epidemic. However, while current resources have not yet fully met the needs, the management and utilization of resources still had many limitations which affect the effectiveness of foreign assistance and investments. The independent assessment was prepared for the Conference on “the Coordination of Foreign Assistance for HIV / AIDS Prevention and Control”. Analytical assessment and comments on the management and coordination of foreign aid were made on the basis of Government’s official procedures and regulations on those issues. This research was carried out in October, 2006.
Teddington, United Kingdom, Tearfund, 2008 Jul. 44 p.This report provides an overview of PMTCT and is an attempt to explore what is working, and why, in scaling up access. The report captures innovative examples of successful programming and partnerships, while identifying challenges and bottlenecks that must be overcome if these countries are to meet their nationally set universal access targets by 2010. The research methodology used for this report was based on a desk review, interviews with key global informants (see Acknowledgements) and country case studies in Malawi, Nigeria and Zambia in early 2008. The in-country study included semi-structured interviews with representatives of government and nongovernmental organisations as well as focus group discussions with community representatives, participatory and observational methodologies. The main objectives of the research were to: 1) identify and conduct interviews with the key international and national stakeholders and explore the structure, components, implementation, co-ordination, financing, policies, and guidelines and monitoring system of the PMTCT programmes; 2) determine what was working well and why; and 3) identify specific bottlenecks, challenges and recommendations for progress. This report provides an overview of the perceptions of key experts and communities on PMTCT interventions and approaches, current global action and country progress.
Lancet. 2006 Apr 8; 367(9517):1193-1208.The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP), a joint project of the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health, the WHO, and The World Bank, was launched in 2001 to identify policy changes and intervention strategies for the health problems of low-income and middle-income countries. Nearly 500 experts worldwide compiled and reviewed the scientific research on a broad range of diseases and conditions, the results of which are published this week. A major product of DCPP, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2), focuses on the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of health-improving strategies (or interventions) for the conditions responsible for the greatest burden of disease. DCP2 also examines crosscutting issues crucial to the delivery of quality health services, including the organisation, financial support, and capacity of health systems. Here, we summarise the key messages of the project. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, 2003. 36 p.Ukraine is a young nation on the move. The national response to HIV/AIDS is also gathering pace. It is bringing together fresh coalitions of people, leaders and institutions who want to stop the further spread of this virus and to ensure care for those who are in need. The good news for all is that there are now known ways of preventing the spread of the virus and treatment is increasingly available. The challenge remains immense -- to some overwhelming. The insidious nature of the virus is that it attacks men and women in the prime of their life -- between the ages of 15 and 40. It robs children of their parents, and society of its productive citizens. Limited budgets and ungrounded stigma have severely hampered a scaled-up nationwide response. Positive rhetoric is helpful, but it needs to be matched by personal commitment and concrete actions. With the infusion of new resources, now is the time to remove the log jams and unleash a broad-based national effort to change the current course of the epidemic. As the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan recently said, "We have come a long way, but not far enough. Clearly, we will have to work harder to ensure that our commitment is matched by the necessary resources and action." (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Aug. 35 p. (UNAIDS/05.18E)The primary goal of this paper is to energize and mobilize an intensification of HIV prevention with an ultimate aim of universal access to HIV prevention and treatment. The paper defines the central actions that must be taken to arrest the spread of new HIV infections and to turn the tide against AIDS. It identifies what needs to be done to speedily and effectively bridge the HIV prevention gap, building on synergies between HIV prevention and care, and to ensure the sustainability of HIV treatment scale-up in the present context. It highlights the role of UNAIDS in relation to intensifying HIV prevention and points to ways in which jointly supportive action can be achieved. This paper is directed towards all those who have a leadership role in HIV prevention, treatment and care. Its foundations lie in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS endorsed by all member states of the United Nations in June 2001 and the Global Strategy Framework on HIV/AIDS endorsed by the 10th meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board in Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. The paper also builds upon commitments expressed in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Programme of Action and the Beijing Platform for Action, together with their follow-up reviews. It highlights significant opportunities for a strengthening of HIV prevention in the context of antiretroviral programmes such as the "3 by 5" Initiative to expand HIV antiretroviral treatment in developing countries. (excerpt)
Health Promotion International. 2005; 20(1):1-6.Millions of young people in the developing world never achieve two decades of life, let alone seven, and so it is with mixed feelings that Health Promotion International celebrates its 20th birthday this issue. Much has been written and said about the antecedents and milestones of the health promotion phenomenon, but what is clear from history is that any rapidly growing movement or organization needs to re-invigorate its purpose for existence as well as build its capacity for success. This is vital if health promotion is to be truly a response to both national and global challenges. The forthcoming Bangkok Conference and foreshadowed Bangkok Conference will seek to fill this gap. (excerpt)
Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Injuries and Violence Protection, 2004.  p.Interpersonal violence is violence between individuals or small groups of individuals. It is an insidious and frequently deadly social problem and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse. It takes place in the home, on the streets and in other public settings, in the workplace, and in institutions such as schools, hospitals and residential care facilities. The direct and indirect financial costs of such violence are staggering, as are the social and human costs that cause untold damage to the economic and social fabric of communities. With the publication in 2002 of the World report on violence and health, an initial sense of the global extent of the interpersonal violence problem was provided, and the central yet frequently overlooked role of the health sector in preventing such violence and treating its victims was made explicit. The report clearly showed that investing in multi-sectoral strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence is not only a moral imperative but also makes sound scientific, economic, political and social sense, and that health sector leadership is both appropriate and essential given the clear public health dimensions of the problem and its solutions. The report also reviewed the increasing evidence that primary prevention efforts which target the root causes and situational determinants of interpersonal violence are both effective and cost-effective. In support of such approaches, the report recommended six country-level activities, namely: 1. Increasing the capacity for collecting data on violence. 2. Researching violence – its causes, consequences and prevention. 3. Promoting the primary prevention of violence. 4. Promoting gender and social equality and equity to prevent violence. 5. Strengthening care and support services for victims. 6. Bringing it all together – developing a national action plan of action. (excerpt)