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  1. 1

    Towards achieving millennium development goals in the health sector in India [editorial]

    Agarwal SP

    Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. 2005 Oct-Dec; 6(4):268-274.

    At the Millennium Summit held at the United Nations (New York) in September 2000, 189 countries reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were adopted by a consensus of experts to measure progress in all the major areas related to the well-being of people. These included extreme poverty, education, health, gender equality, and the environment. All goals are interlinked, and efforts to achieve one goal will have positive spillover effects on several others. 18 Targets and 48 Indicators have been adopted to monitor the Eight Millennium Development Goals. Of these, 8 Targets and 18 Indicators are directly related to health. While many health indicators are "truly health indicators" such as prevalence and death rates associated with malaria and tuberculosis, some are related to critical factors for health such as access to improved water supply or dietary energy consumption (health-related indicators). India is committed to achieve the Targets under the MDGs by 2015. Incidentally, certain targets have been set under the National Population Policy 2000 (NPP-2000), National Health Policy 2002 (NHP-2002), National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy 2004, and the Tenth Five Year Plan. This paper compares goals and targets mentioned in these documents vis-a-vis selected Millennium Development Goals and Targets. This also highlights the current progress towards attaining the MDGs as well as the challenges ahead. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    CAH progress report, 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001. [59] p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.12)

    CAH has continued to strengthen catalytic linkages with other WHO departments, UN agencies, bilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private voluntary organizations and foundations. These partners play an important role in assessing the need for strategies for child and adolescent health and development and in supporting their implementation. Strong collaboration exists with a range of partners inside and outside WHO. It is through these partnerships that CAH is able to build capacity and extend the application of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and adolescent health and development interventions. This progress report provides an informative summary of the work of the Department midway through the current biennium. Chapter 1 describes the Department’s global priorities in child and adolescent health, and efforts to address them. Chapters 2–4 summarize the year’s work in three topic areas—promoting a safe and supportive environment, improving health service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. The final chapter describes collaboration with partners and continuing efforts to expand capacity for sound public health programming at all levels. A full programme report will be prepared at the close of the 2000–2001 biennium. The CAH staff in Headquarters, in the Regional Offices and in countries invite you to read this report, make suggestions, and join us in our efforts to mobilize the global community in promoting the health of children and adolescents. In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have provided support to our activities, both technical and financial. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Health reformers' response to Zambia's childhood mortality crisis.

    Simms C

    [Brighton, England], University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, 2000 Nov. 30 p. (IDS Working Paper 121)

    This study examines the reasons for the rise in Zambian under-five mortality during the 1990s, paying particular attention to the relevance and effectiveness of health sector reform strategies and their impact on ordinary Zambians. In the 1980s, economic crisis and structural adjustment led to reduced public health spending in real terms so that by the early 1990s, Zambia's health care delivery system was characterised by a low-supply, low utilisation paradigm, typical of most of SSA. Health reform was designed to improve these trends by the integration and decentralisation of services, district capacity building and addressing issues of sustainability and financing. While large investments were made by the donors in the development of financial and health information systems, they did not actually improve the delivery of basic services. On the contrary, reform measures taken by government and donors appear to have further reduced access especially among the vulnerable populations through the implementation of user charges, and failed attempts to decentralise and integrate services. Although a variety of shocks are contributing to the rise in under-five mortality, particularly the HIV epidemic, there is strong evidence that a key factor explaining the rise over the last 20 years is that vulnerable populations have not received adequate protection from restructuring operations. Government and donors had little or no motivation to see that the poor had access to effective health care, were protected from the worst drought in 50 years, food subsidy withdrawal, falling living standards and rising prices. Poverty interest groups have never participated in the policy process and agencies which ought to have represented the poor have been a disappointment. As a consequence, health restructuring as social policy has been far removed from the reality of ordinary Zambians. An alternative set of reform strategies might have provided better protection for the poor by incorporating a livelihoods perspective, by being more flexible, attentive and responsive to changing needs in a turbulent environment. (author's)
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