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Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
‘Leaving no one behind’ in action: observations from FGE’sseven-year experience working with civil society.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 8 p.This brief contains observations from the Fund for Gender Equality’s (FGE) seven-year experience working with civil society. Gender equality is at the forefront of the 2030 Development Agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals include a stand-alone goal to advance equality, and gender-related targets mainstreamed across the Global Goals. If something has opened a door for drastic progress in the lives of women and girls worldwide, it is the principle of leaving no one behind. Leaving no one behind means prioritizing human beings’ dignity and placing the progress of the most marginalized communities first—women and girls being all too often at the top of the list. It urges us to address the structural causes of inequality and marginalization that affect them. This ambitious undertaking requires a collective effort to identify and share effective strategies to operationalize this concept. This brief offers practical insights based on the experience of the FGE in working with marginalized populations through its support to women-led civil society organizations (CSOs).
Pakistan: increasing access to SRH services in fragile contexts for rural women in hard-to-reach areas.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Sep. 2 p.In some areas of Pakistan, girls and women are vulnerable to harmful traditional practices, like swara (now illegal, a form of reconciliation where a girl or woman is given in marriage to settle a dispute) and early marriage, and many of them face tremendous obstacles to basic services, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services.
Strengthening the capacity of community health workers to deliver care for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 20 p.Government institutions, United Nations agencies, and global partners have been repositioning the role that community health workers (CHWs) can play in increasing access to essential quality health services in the context of national primary health care and universal health coverage. Given the growing momentum and interest in training CHWs, the United Nations health agencies (H4+) have developed this technical brief to orient country programme managers and global partners as to key elements for strengthening the capacity of CHWs, including health system and programmatic considerations, core competencies, and evidence-informed interventions for CHWs along the SR/MNCAH continuum of care. These key elements need to be adapted and contextualized by countries to reflect the structure, gaps, and opportunities of the national primary health care system, the interaction between the health sector with other sectors, and the specific roles and competencies that CHWs already have within that system. These key elements should also guide H4+ members and partners to take a joint and harmonized approach to supporting countries in their capacity-development efforts. Annex 1 lists SR/MNCAH interventions that CHWs can perform based on the best available evidence and existing WHO guidance.
Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.
Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers, 18-19 May 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. The future of nursing and midwifery workforce in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage. Forum statement.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016.  p.The goal of the World Health Organization and its Member States is to achieve the highest attainable levels of health for all people. A number of health development approaches have been directed toward this goal from primary health care in the 70’s through to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The commitment made by Member States to universal health coverage reinforces the need for strengthened nursing and midwifery contribution to achieve good health outcomes. Although many countries still have nursing and midwifery workforce shortages, we the Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers recognize that in addition to increasing our numbers, more must be done in order to realize these professions full potential. Consequently, we acknowledge the importance of ensuring the quality, acceptability, relevance and sustainability of our future nursing and midwifery workforce. Strengthening nursing and midwifery services in our respective countries is possible by using the latest evidence-based knowledge and relevant technologies to create policies and management systems that support practice and leadership which deliver quality services to individuals and communities within the distinctiveness of our health systems. In the context of this Forum and in support of the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 and the Global Strategic Directions for Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery 2016-2020, we commit ourselves to: a) Strengthening governance and accountability, b) Maximizing capacity and capability and realising the potential of the nursing and midwifery workforce and c) Mobilizing political will, commitment and investments for nursing and midwifery.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2016 Mar.  p.The "last missing piece" to complete the architecture of the 2030 sustainable development agenda is to adopt a comprehensive framework of progress indicators to guide countries’ efforts to reach the Goals by 2030. This article explains the challenges of collecting the indicator data.
Reproductive Health. 2015 Sep 18; 12(90):1-13.Background Young people make up for 24.5 % of Latin America’s population. Inadequate supply of specific and timely sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and sexuality education for young people increases their risk of sexual and reproductive ill health. Colombia is one of the few countries in Latin America that has implemented and scaled up specific and differentiated health and SRH services-termed as its Youth Friendly Health Services (YFHS) Model. Objective To provide a systematic description of the crucial factors that facilitated and hindered the scale up process of the YFHS Model in Colombia. Methods A comprehensive literature search on SRH services for young people and national efforts to improve their quality of care in Colombia and neighbouring countries was carried out along with interviews with a selection of key stakeholders. The information gathered was analysed using the World Health Organization-ExpandNet framework (WHO-ExpandNet). Results/Discussion In 7 years (2007-2013) of the implementation of the YFHS Model in Colombia more than 800 clinics nationally have been made youth friendly. By 2013, 536 municipalities in 32 departments had YFHS, resulting in coverage of 52 % of municipalities offering YHFS. The analysis using the WHO-ExpandNet framework identified five elements that enabled the scale up process: Clear policies and implementation guidelines on YFHS, clear attributes of the user organization and resource team, establishment and implementation of an inter-sectoral and interagency strategy, identification of and support to stakeholders and advocates of YFHS, and solid monitoring and evaluation. The elements that limited or slowed down the scale up effort were: Insufficient number of health personnel trained in youth health and SRH, a high turnover of health personnel, a decentralized health security system, inadequate supply of financial and human resources, and negative perceptions among community members about providing SRH information and services to young people. Conclusion Colombia’s experience shows that for large-scale implementation of youth health programmes, clear policies and implementation guidelines, support from institutional leaders and authorities who become champions of YFHS, continuous training of health personnel, and inclusion of users in the design and monitoring of these services are key.
A decade of investments in monitoring the HIV epidemic: how far have we come? A descriptive analysis.
Health Research Policy and Systems. 2014; 12:62.BACKGROUND: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment (DoC) adopted by the General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) included a call to monitor national responses to the HIV epidemic. Since the DoC, efforts and investments have been made globally to strengthen countries' HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity. This analysis aims to quantify HIV M&E investments, commitments, capacity, and performance during the last decade in order to assess the success and challenges of national and global HIV M&E systems. METHODS: M&E spending and performance was assessed using data from UNGASS country progress reports. The National Composite Policy Index (NCPI) was used to measure government commitment, government engagement, partner/civil society engagement, and data generation, as well as to generate a composite HIV M&E System Capacity Index (MESCI) score. Analyses were restricted to low and middle income countries (LMICs) who submitted NCPI reports in 2006, 2008, and 2010 (n = 78). RESULTS: Government commitment to HIV M&E increased considerably between 2006 and 2008 but decreased between 2008 and 2010. The percentage of total AIDS spending allocated to HIV M&E increased from 1.1% to 1.4%, between 2007 and 2010, in high-burden LMICs. Partner/civil society engagement and data generation capacity improved between 2006 and 2010 in the high-burden countries. The HIV MESCI increased from 2006 to 2008 in high-burden countries (78% to 94%), as well as in other LMICs (70% to 77%), and remained relatively stable in 2010 (91% in high-burden countries, 79% in other LMICs). Among high-burden countries, M&E system performance increased from 52% in 2006 to 89% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The last decade has seen increased commitments and spending on HIV M&E, as well as improved M&E capacity and more available data on the HIV epidemic in both high-burden and other LMICs. However, challenges remain in the global M&E of the AIDS epidemic as we approach the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets.
Expanding contraceptive choice in West Africa: Building the capacity of local nongovernmental organizations to program holistically.
New York, New York, EngenderHealth, RESPOND Project, 2013 Jun.  p. (Project Brief No. 15)This project brief looks at how nongovernmental organizations can expand access to contraception in West Africa and specifically looks at member associations of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Benin, Burkina Faso and Togo.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2014.  p.This report builds on a program of work on sexuality education for young people initiated in 2008 by UNESCO. It is also informed by several other past and ongoing initiatives related to scaling up sexuality education, as well as drawing on case studies presented at the Bogota international consultation on sexuality education, convened by UNFPA in 2010. The report emphasizes the challenges for scaling-up in terms of integrating comprehensive sexuality education into the formal curricula of schools. It aims to provide conceptual and practical guidance on definitions and strategies of scaling-up; illustrate good practice and pathways for successful scale-up in light of diverse contextual parameters; and provide some principles of scaling up sexuality education that are of relevance internationally.
Contemporary Politics. 2012 Jun; 18(2):186-199.Capacity-building has become a mainstay of many AIDS and public health programmes. This article examines its impact on civil society organisations and claims-making around citizenship, as these have been articulated through heterogeneous policy networks doing HIV prevention work. Drawing on a growing literature on the Foucauldian notions of biopower and governmentality, the genealogy of capacity-building as a globalised technology of governmentality is traced, examining its uses both at the international level and in Brazil. Brazilian civil society organisations have undoubtedly been transformed by their participation in networks carrying out capacity-building projects. While recognising these effects, the conflicts and productive tensions inherent to such networks are highlighted.
Development in Practice. 2012 Apr; 22(2):202-215.Empowerment has become a mainstream concept in international development but lacks clear definition, which can undermine development initiatives aimed at strengthening empowerment as a route to poverty reduction. In the present article, written narratives from 49 international development organisations identify how empowerment is defined and operationalised in community initiatives. Results show a conceptual framework of empowerment comprising six mechanisms that foster empowerment (knowledge; agency; opportunity; capacity-building; resources; and sustainability), five domains of empowerment (health; economic; political; resource; and spiritual), and three levels (individual; community; and organisational). A key finding is the interdependence between components, indicating important programmatic implications for development initiatives.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, .  p. (\)Designing and implementing knowledge exchange initiatives can be a big undertaking. This guide takes the guesswork out of the process by breaking it down into simple steps and providing tools to help you play a more effective role as knowledge connector and learning facilitator. It will help you: identify and assess capacity development needs; design and develop an appropriate knowledge exchange initiative that responds to those needs; implement the knowledge exchange initiative; measure and report the results.
[Hove, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2012 Jun.  p.Our vision is a world in which people do not die of aids. For us, this means a world in which communities: have brought HIV under control by preventing its transmission; enjoy better health; and can fully exercise their human rights. Our mission is to support community action to prevent HIV infection, meet the challenges of AIDS, and build healthier communities.We take great pride investing in a community-based response that understands what works in a local context, and that is strengthened by learning from a global partnership of national organisations. In 2011 this approach enabled us to reach 2.8 million people.
Technical support facilities: Helping to build an efficient and sustainable AIDS response. UNAIDS TSF 5 years report, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS / JC2167E)This report highlights the role that the Technical Support Facilities (TSF) have played in Africa and Asia to strengthen countries capacities to fund, plan, manage and coordinate effective, larger scale HIV programs. Established by UNAIDS in 2005, the TSFs have provided support to over 70 countries through 50,000 days of technical assistance and capacity development.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2010 Sep; 31(3 Suppl):S272-86.This report integrates the results from two working group meetings that were held to familiarize country teams of eastern and southern Africa with research findings to allow countries to develop plans to further reinforce national nutrition information systems. The meetings specifically focused on: reviewing recent trends in child malnutrition in eastern and southern Africa particularly in relation to drought and HIV/AIDS; making recommendations on key technical issues related to sampling, mortality estimation, and indicators used in small-scale nutrition surveys; and making recommendations for the next steps to further develop nutrition information systems in the region.
[Washington, D.C]., World Bank. 2010 May.  p.Reproductive health is a key facet of human development. Improved reproductive health outcomes -- lower fertility rates, better pregnancy outcomes, and fewer sexually transmitted infections -- have broader individual, family, and societal benefits. The benefits include a healthier and more productive work force, greater financial and other resources for each child in smaller families, and enabling young women to delay childbearing until they have achieved educational and other goals. Women's full and equal participation in the development process is contingent on accessing essential reproductive health services, including the ability to make voluntary and informed decisions about fertility. Reproductive health issues have only recently begun to be a priority in the development agenda. Even though Official Development Assistance (ODA) for reproductive health has increased, the share of health ODA going to reproductive health declined in the past decade. This document presents a detailed operationalization of the reproductive health component of the Bank's 2007 Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) strategy.
New York, New York, UNFPA, .  p.UNFPA's Maternal Health Thematic Fund, initiated in early 2008, represents a focused effort to accelerate progress towards saving women's lives and achieving universal access to reproductive health, as outlined in Millennium Development Goal 5. This report outlines the activities, results and achievements from 2010 and looks ahead at future challenges. It also features results from the Campaign to End Fistula and the ICM-UNFPA midwifery project and illustrates that significant progress can be made by adopting proven strategies -- including family planning, skilled care during childbirth, and expanded access and utilization of emergency obstetric and newborn care -- combined with partnerships for better coordination under national leadership.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2009.  p.Over 2008, wide global consultation revealed considerable interest and frustration among researchers, funders and policy-makers around our limited understanding of what works in health systems strengthening. In this current Flagship Report we introduce and discuss the merits of employing a systems thinking approach in order to catalyze conceptual thinking regarding health systems, system-level interventions, and evaluations of health system strengthening. The Report sets out to answer the following broad questions: What is systems thinking and how can researchers and policy-makers apply it? How can we use this perspective to better understand and exploit the synergies among interventions to strengthen health systems? How can systems thinking contribute to better evaluations of these system-level interventions? This Report argues that a stronger systems perspective among designers, implementers, stewards and funders is a critical component in strengthening overall health-sector development in low- and middle-income countries. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . vi, 27 p.This framework was developed to help address persistent gender inequality and human rights violations. These violations put women and girls at greater risk of HIV and threaten the gains that have been made in preventing HIV transmission and increasing access to antiretroviral treatment.