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East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 2016 Dec; 10(4):445-467.This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017. 80 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives: The main document analyses progress in quantitative terms, provides an account of how our budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries. This companion booklet uses a qualitative and narrative approach to examine more specifically the challenges, complexities and achievements on the ground. It explores the innovative approaches the Joint Programme teams, partners and activists employ to deconstruct the social norms that allow FGM / C to continue in many communities.
2016 Nov; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Nov. 2 p.Violence against women and girls is one of the most universal and pervasive human rights violations in the world, of pandemic proportions, with country data showing that about one third of women in the world report experiencing physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime, mainly by their partners. UN Women provides knowledge-based policy and programming guidance to a diverse array of stakeholders at international, regional and country levels often partnering with other UN agencies and stakeholders. UN Women’s work is broadly focused on a comprehensive approach to ending violence against women and girls that addresses legislation and policies, prevention, services for survivors, research and data. The briefs included in this package aim to summarize in a concise and friendly way, for advocates, programmers and policy makers, the essential strategies for addressing violence against women in general, for preventing violence and providing services to survivors in particular.
Proposal of indicators to evaluate complementary feeding based on World Health Organization indicators.
Nursing and Health Sciences. 2016 Sep; 18(3):334-41.This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Parana, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding. (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Improving health, social welfare, and human development through women's empowerment in developing countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA.
International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2016; 5(2):87-91.The United Nations Foundation’s Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13 and welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, and engage in an official lobby day in the nation’s capital. Topics ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013 Jul 12; 88(28):285-96.This epidemiologic record discusses recent data about yellow fever outbreaks and cases in Africa and South America between 2011 and 2012. During this period, major outbreaks were reported in Sudan and Uganda while significant clusters of cases were reported in Cameroon, Chad and Cote d’Ivoire, necessitating an extended vaccination response. In addition, some isolated cases occurred in districts reporting high yellow fever vaccination coverage (Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Togo), for which no vaccination response was undertaken. In South America, the World Health Organization American Region reported 32 cases (2011-2012), including 9 deaths, in Brazil, Ecuador, Plurinational State of Bolivia and Peru. As of 2012, most countries in the Caribbean and Latin America with enzootic areas had introduced the yellow fever vaccine into their national routine immunization schedules. The 2008 outbreaks in the Southern Cone expanded the area considered at risk to include northern Argentina and Paraguay. Building upon the yellow fever investment case strategy, which has reduced the frequency and size of disruptive outbreaks, the Yellow Fever Strategic Framework 2012-2020 prioritizes endemic countries according to their epidemic risk. This framework will enable WHO and partners to identify the populations’ high priority needs through a systematic approach so that limited resources can be allocated most effective to reduce the burden of yellow fever in Africa. Following a request from the countries, a form of yellow fever experts met in Panama to discuss how countries can make scientific evidence-based risk assessments and suggested that endemic countries should strive to enhance yellow fever surveillance systems.
Indoor residual spraying: an operational manual for indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria transmission control and elimination.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013.  p.This manual has been created to enhance existing knowledge and skills, and to assist malaria programme managers, entomologists and vector control and public health officers to design, implement and sustain high quality IRS programmes. Though comprehensive, this manual is not intended to replace field expertise in IRS. The manual is divided into three chapters: IRS policy, strategy and standards for national policy makers and programme managers; IRS management, including stewardship and safe use of insecticides, for both national programme managers and district IRS coordinators; IRS spray application guidelines, primarily for district IRS coordinators, supervisors and team leaders. This manual will enable national programmes to: develop or refine national policies and strategies on vector control; develop or update existing national guidelines; develop or update existing national training materials; review access and coverage of IRS programmes; review the quality and impact of IRS programmes.
Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO / UNICEF collaboration.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2013 Mar; 1(1):68-83.In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet’s goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child immunization services, track children’s immunization history and encourage vaccination of children missing scheduled vaccinations, and mobilize local opinion leaders. Creative behavior change activities and materials promoted vaccination awareness and safety, household hygiene, sanitation, home diarrheal-disease control, and breastfeeding. Program decision-makers at all levels used household-level data that were aggregated at community and district levels, and senior staff provided rapid feedback and regular capacity-building supervision to field staff. Use of routine project data and targeted research findings offered insights into and informed innovative approaches to overcoming community concerns impacting immunization coverage. While the SMNet worked in the highest-risk, poorly served communities, data suggest that the immunization coverage in SMNet communities was often higher than overall coverage in the district. The partners’ organizational and resource differences and complementary technical strengths posed both opportunities and challenges; overcoming them enhanced the partnership’s success and contributions.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2010 Mar; 88(3):232-4.Add to my documents.
New York, New York, UNFPA, .  p.UNFPA's Maternal Health Thematic Fund, initiated in early 2008, represents a focused effort to accelerate progress towards saving women's lives and achieving universal access to reproductive health, as outlined in Millennium Development Goal 5. This report outlines the activities, results and achievements from 2010 and looks ahead at future challenges. It also features results from the Campaign to End Fistula and the ICM-UNFPA midwifery project and illustrates that significant progress can be made by adopting proven strategies -- including family planning, skilled care during childbirth, and expanded access and utilization of emergency obstetric and newborn care -- combined with partnerships for better coordination under national leadership.
mHealth: New horizons for health through mobile technologies. Based on the findings of the Second Global Survey on eHealth.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p. (Global Observatory for eHealth Series Vol. 3)This report aims to make policy-makers aware of the mHealth landscape and the main barriers to implement or scale mHealth projects. It combines the results and analysis of the data gathered from the mHealth survey and is complemented by five country case studies and a review of the current literature related to mHealth. (Excerpt)
Pandemic influenza A H1N1: Vaccination campaigns protect the most vulnerable populations in Togo. Photo and caption.
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2010 Dec.  p.During two countrywide vaccination campaigns, Togo's MOH immunized 10 percent of its most at-risk populations. Togo is one of 40 countries conducting a national H1N1 immunization campaign in collaboration with WHO and the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT.
[New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2008. 35 p.Obstetric fistula, almost unknown in the industrialized world, is most common in poor communities of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where emergency obstetric care is rarely accessible. It occurs when a woman undergoes a difficult and prolonged labour without prompt medical intervention. Left incontinent, women with fistula are often abandoned by husbands and loved ones and blamed for their condition. Their babies are usually born dead. Like maternal death, obstetric fistula is preventable. Averting it will also contribute to safer childbearing for women throughout the developing world.This publication covers topics such as: 1. Advancing Maternal Health and Rights; 2. Preventing Harm; 3. Healing Wounds; 4. Renewing Hope; 5. Harnessing Momentum.
From advocacy to access: Uganda. The power of networks: How do you mobilize funds for reproductive health supplies? Fact chart.
London, England, IPPF, 2009 Nov.  p.In Uganda the IPPF Member Association, Reproductive Health Uganda (RHU) coordinated civil society and mobilized advocates and champions to increase the availability of RH supplies and family planning. Results to date include: The Government of Uganda increased funding for RH supplies in the 2010 budget; The Government of Uganda disburses funds directly to the National Medical Stores on an annual basis enabling the bulk purchase of contraceptives; 30 out of 80 districts have committed to increasing their resource allocation for family planning and RH supplies.
Journal of School Health. 2008 Jul; 78(7):368-373.India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). During this same period, India conducted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2003 and 2006 in an effort to track tobacco use among adolescents. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. Representative national estimates for India in 2003 and 2006 were used in this study. In 2006, 3.8% of students currently smoked cigarettes and 11.9% currently used other tobacco products. These rates were not significantly different than those observed in 2003. Over the same period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places significantly decreased, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco ads on billboards and the ability to purchase cigarettes in a store did not change significantly. The ITCA and the WHO FCTC have had mixed impacts on the tobacco control effort for adolescents in India. The positive impacts have been the reduction in exposure to SHS, both at home and in public places. The negative impacts are seen with the lack of change in pro-tobacco advertising and ability to purchase cigarettes in stores. The Government of India needs to consider new and stronger provisions of the ITCA and include strong enforcement measures. (author's)
New York, New York, Family Care International, 2007.  p.This publication explores knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives on pregnancy, delivery, and fistula from 31 country-level needs assessments conducted in 29 countries in the Campaign to End Fistula (see inside back cover for the complete list). Experiences of women living with obstetric fistula, their families, community members, and health care providers are brought to light. This information represents important research on the social, cultural, political, and economic dimensions of obstetric fistula, drawing attention to the factors underlying maternal death and disability. We hope this publication will serve as an advocacy tool to strengthen existing programmes and encourage further research on how to increase access to vital maternal health services, including fistula prevention and treatment. We implore policy makers, programmers, and researchers to listen to these women's voices and consider the promising practices and strategic recommendations described herein. What we have learned so far can help point the way, but much more still needs to be done. We cannot afford to wait-the costs to women, communities, and health systems are simply too great to delay action. Too many of the world's most disadvantaged and vulnerable women have suffered this preventable and treatable condition in silence. Too many women are dying unnecessarily in childbirth. It is time to put an end to the injustice of fistula and maternal death. (author's)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Jan; 8(1):13.According to new data, the global number of measles deaths fell by 68% from 757 000 to 242 000 between 2000 and 2006. This decrease was a result of a spectacular 91% reduction in Africa, where countries rallied behind concerted immunisation campaigns to achieve a rare success story for a continent blighted by public-health failures. In Africa, deaths were cut from 396 000 to 36 000 by implementing the measles reduction strategy, which includes vaccinating all children before their first birthday and providing a second opportunity for measles vaccination through mass vaccination campaigns. "The clear message from this achievement is that the strategy works", said Julie Gerberding, director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which was one of the founding partners of the Measles Initiative, together with WHO, UNICEF, the American Red Cross, and the United Nations Foundation. She said the focus would now move to India, where an estimated 10.5 million children are not immunised. Some178 000 people died of measles in south Asia last year - mostly in India and Pakistan - only 26% down from 2000. (excerpt)
Journal of Health Communication. 2007; 12(8):705-706.Global health seems to be more firmly established, with a variety of organizations, professional publications, governments and foundations increasing the emphasis. Some of the increase in awareness can be attributed to recent concerns of health security- avian flu, SARS, bioterrorism, MDR-TB-as well as the moral imperatives to address the inequalities pervasive in the 21st Century. In the past five years alone, aid for health as more than doubled. Yet, there is a clouded leadership and approach-there is one truly global health organization-the World Health Organization with 191 member states. Yet, there are over 90 global health agencies, 40 bilateral donors, 26 UN agencies, and 20 global and regional funds. Countless foundations and others have entered the fray-some employing evidence informed approaches, with others based on ideology and multiple sources for engagement. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has a budget dwarfing many governments as well as multilateral institutions dedicated to health. The Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) have helped galvanize and provide funding for specific diseases. Recently, the new UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown launched the International Health Partnership, another initiative to accelerate progress on health globally. (excerpt)
The Global Campaign for the Health MDGs: Challenges, opportunities, and the imperative of shared learning.
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1018-1020.On Sept 5, the International Health Partnership (IHP) was launched by the UK, and on Sept 26, Women and Children First: the Global Business Plan for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health will be launched by Norway. These two new efforts, along with the Canadian Catalytic Initiative to Save a Million Lives, have been packaged as part of a broader Global Campaign for the Health Millennium Goals (MDGs). Such an explosion of proposals, which is meant to accelerate action for achieving MDGs 4, 5, and 6, should be welcomed by the world's health community. The proposals are further recognition of the continued commitment by high-income countries to address key health challenges in low-income and middle-income countries. Building on a decade of expanding work in global health, we can hope that these high-profile initiatives will sustain interest and address major obstacles to improving the health of the poorest people in the magnitude and time-frame demanded by the MDGs. Nevertheless, as is often the case with new policy efforts, the main operative aspects of the proposals and their likely consequences can be difficult to identify. We frame questions on five key issues that these announcements highlight. (excerpt)
New York, New York, OSAGI, .  p.Her name is Joyce Puta, a 48-year-old Zambian army colonel on secondment to the United Nations. An unabashed fighter, her enemy for the last ten years has been HIV/AIDS. Her latest battleground is Liberia, and by all accounts she has been waging a successful campaign. Working with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Colonel Puta points out that any environment requiring peacekeepers is also a risky one for the spread of HIV/AIDS. In post-conflict situations, social structures crumble and economies are unstable. In order to survive, desperate young women may turn to commercial sex work, often around military bases. So how did a career Zambian army officer find herself on the frontlines in the fight against HIV/AIDS? Joyce Puta joined the army at eighteen. Six years later she became a registered nurse and midwife, and then nursing services manager for Zambia's main military hospital. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 2007 Summer; 81(2):407-430.Between 1947 and 1951 the Scandinavian-led International Tuberculosis Campaign tested more than 37 million children and adolescents for tuberculosis, and vaccinated more than 16 million with BCG vaccine. The campaign was an early example of an international health program, and it was generally seen as the largest medical campaign to date. It was born, however, as a Danish effort to create goodwill in war-ravaged Europe, and was extended outside Europe only because UNICEF in 1948 unexpectedly donated US $2 million specifically for BCG vaccination in areas outside Europe. As the campaign transformed from postwar relief to an international health program it was forced to make adaptations to different demographic, social, and cultural contexts. This created a tension between a scientific ideal of uniformity, on the one hand, and pragmatic flexibility on the other. Looking at the campaign in India, which was the most important non-European country in the campaign, this article analyzes three issues in more detail: the development of a simplified vaccination technique; the employment of lay-vaccinators; and whether the campaign in India was conceived as a short-term demonstration or a more extensive mass-vaccination effort. (author's)
USAID / Moldova antitrafficking assessment -- critical gaps in and recommendations for antitrafficking activities.
Washington, D.C., Development Alternatives, WID Tech, 2002 Oct.  p. (USAID Contract No. FAO-0100-C-00-6005-00)The objective of this assessment is twofold: (1) to provide USAID/Western New Independent States (WNIS) with a road map of existing trafficking-prevention activities undertaken by donor agencies and bilateral, international-development and host-country-government institutions and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Moldova; and (2) to help USAID/WNIS identify critical gaps in existing approaches in Moldova that new interventions might address. The road map and accompanying list of recommendations provide U.S. government officials in USAID/WNIS with the information and tools necessary to design specific activities at a later date. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 31 p.This report, the third of its kind, reviews the progress that has been made in the field of violence prevention since the October 2002 launch of the World report on violence and health and the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. More importantly, it sets out what the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners can do over the next 5 years to expand violence prevention programming and to demonstrate, in terms of lives saved lives and suffering averted, the impact of violence prevention. Violence is a major obstacle to health and development, but as Nelson Mandela said in the foreword to the World report on violence and health, "Violence can be prevented. Violent cultures can be turned around ... Governments, communities and individuals can make a difference". As well as increased awareness that violence is preventable, notable achievements of the first 5 years of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention detailed here include consolidating and disseminating normative guidance on how to prevent violence; carving a niche within government health ministries for focal persons to promote violence prevention; and taking stock of the scale and nature of the violence problem and the responses to it. At the individual level, tens of thousands of people in scores of countries have been touched by violence prevention programmes and thousands of victims have been helped to cope with the aftermath of their experience through services established as part of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Jun; 7(6):379.UNICEF has said that a campaign to vaccinate millions of Iraqi children against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) ended successfully, although difficulties were encountered in the most insecure areas of the country. The campaign aimed to vaccinate Iraq's 3.9 million children aged from 1 to 5 years old with the MMR vaccine. Claire Hajaj, head of communication at UNICEF Iraq, told TLID that the exercise went well, even in Anbar and Diyala governorates, which are strongholds of the Sunni insurgency. The first 5 days of the exercise saw 1 million children vaccinated and a 50% coverage was achieved at the halfway stage, according to UNICEF. There were no reports of vaccination teams being confronted with specific threats because of their participation in the campaign, Hajaj said. However, two teams were caught up in an explosion in Baghdad. There was no information to suggest the teams were deliberately targeted. A few areas were reportedly unreachable because of insecurity. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], Women's UN Report Program and Network, 2007.  p.The theme of International Women's Day 2007 is Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women. Gender-blind International Financial Institution (IFI) operations-those of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and the regional development banks-financing private-corporate led growth, debt repayment, and low inflation and public spending often aggravate existing discrimination against women and girls, particularly among marginalized groups such as indigenous peoples. Such IFI investments intensify poverty, human displacement, trafficking in and violence against women, prostitution, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The IFIs may not intend their investments to contribute to violence against women, but the impacts are all too real. For example, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-funded Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, supposedly designed to boost development, has degraded theenvironment, driven many women and girls in communities around the pipeline into prostitution, and increased sexually transmitted diseases, sexual harassment and violence against women. The East Asian financial crisis-brought on ten years ago largely by bad IMF advice designed to stimulate foreign investment-strained household gender relations, increasing domestic violence against women and girls, family abandonment by household heads, and female suicide. (excerpt)