Your search found 18 Results

  1. 1

    Biology of fertility control by periodic abstinence: report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Scientific Group on the Biology of Fertility Control by Periodic Abstinence

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1967. 20 p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 360)

    In this report of a World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group on the Biology of Fertility Control by Periodic Abstinence, convened in Geneva during May and June 1966, existing knowledge of the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and fertility is outlined relevant to the objective of understanding the mechanisms of fertility control by periodic abstinence. Discussion is limited to physicological and arithmetical analyses of the subject to the relative effectiveness of different methods for determining the necessary period of abstinence. Attention is directed to genital and extragenital changes associated with the menstrual cycle as possible aids in detecting ovulaion and the demarcation of that part of the cycle that is potentially the fertile period. Studies of the use effectiveness of the calendar methods have given failure rates that vary from 14 to almost 40 pregnancies/100 woman-years of use. In 4 studies in Western Europe of the use effectiveness of the temperature method, the failure rate was 0.8 to 1.4 pregnancies/100 woman-years of use. The most common causes of failure, i.e., pregnancy, with the various forms of fertility control by periodic abstinence are probably lack of accurate knowledge regarding the method used and lack of motivation. Recommendations regarding research needs are included.
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  2. 2

    [Population growth, development work, and family planning (the church's experience in the third world)] Bevolkerungswachstum, Entwicklungsarbeit und Familienplanung (kirchliche Erfahrung in der Dritten Welt).

    Schoop W

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 308-15.

    This paper approaches the problem of population growth, development and family planning from the point of view of Christian church activities in the 3rd World. It is an oversimplification of the situation to believe that development policy in a country can be guided only by population considerations. The challenge of population growth must be seen in the context of many barriers to development in the 3rd World which are closely associated with population trends. Thus, birth control measures will succeed only when they are part of a unified multi-sector development aid that is integrated into the life of the country taking into consideration cultural and ecological factors. The author traces the evolution of viewpoints among development specialists since the Bucharest conference of 1974 in which contraception was no longer accepted as the basic principle in development aid, unless it is integrated into a complete system of satisfying the basic needs of a population. The target group for this strategy is primarily the family, representing as it does the smallest unit of human society in village and urban communities. The author lists and discusses a number of general criteria for acceptability of methods of contraception. Development leaders trained in the western churches can accept methods of natural family planning (NFP) such as rhythm methods but in many societies local cultures unquestionably accept richness in children as a blessing. The use of NFP requires the acceptance of a new life style by both husband and wife.
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  3. 3

    Natural family planning: a good option.

    Georgetown University. School of Medicine. Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning

    Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, School of Medicine, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1989 Jul. 15, [2] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    Natural family planning (NFP) is a technique for determining a woman's fertile period to regulate childbearing. There are many methods in NFP including rhythm or calendar, basal body temperature, cervical mucus, modified mucus, and sympto-thermal. All of these methods use the natural signs and symptoms of a woman's fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle. The rhythm or calendar is still the most widely used method, and women keep track of the lengths of previous menstrual cycles to determine the days of fertility. The cervical mucus method uses changes in the characteristics of the mucus during the fertile period. The basal body temperature method uses the change in resting temperature to determine the fertile period. The sympto-thermal method uses a combination of body temperature, cervical mucus, and breast tenderness to determine the fertile period. Breast feeding provides a period of about 6 months after birth when there is a delay in the return of ovulation. The advantages of natural family planning include the following: little contact with medical personnel and procedures, it is less expensive, it may provide a method in agreement with religious or ethical beliefs, and it can help couples understand how their reproductive system works. In a World Health Organization study, the effectiveness of NFP was shown to be 78% overall, and the continuation rate was 65%. Many other studies have shown rates between 70-90% effectiveness over a 12 month period. In a recent African study over a 5 year period, unplanned pregnancy rates were 4.3% and 9.6% in Liberia and Zambia respectively.
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  4. 4

    Natural family planning. A guide to provision of services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1988. vi, 82 p.

    There are 4 natural family planning (NFP) methods: rhythm, cervical mucus (Billings), basil body temperature, and symptothermal. The rhythm method is one in which cycle history of last 6-12 months is used to estimate the possible days of fertility. In the cervical mucus method a women must be able to detect changes in the cervical mucus discharge during the cycle. The basil body temperature method uses the difference in temperature that occurs after ovulation, and can only be used to detect the infertile time after ovulation. The symptothermal method combines the mucus method and the basil body temperature methods. In addition it uses other physiological indicators such as breast tenderness, pain, bleeding, and abdominal heaviness. The use of natural planning methods demands the cooperation and motivation of both partners to be successful. The methods can be taught by midwives, nurses doctors and other health care professionals. NFP teacher training is the cornerstone of the NFP programs and service. Teachers must have the technical ability and practical experience to carry out training programs. NFP programs can only be successful in areas that are receptive to NFP and have high literacy rates. To plan and implement NFP services, one must take into account community needs, resources available, and the structures needed to deliver these services. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, including formal evaluation of the teachers, monitoring of the users, and getting feedback from both.
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  5. 5

    Ovulation method satisfaction is relative to abstinence required.

    Burger HG; Pinol AP; Farley TM; Van Look PF


    To determine whether the degree of satisfaction experienced by a couple in the practice of the Ovulation (or rhythm) Method of natural family planning was related to the required duration of sexual abstinence, data from the 13-cycle effectiveness phase of a WHO study involving 725 women subjects in 5 countries (New Zealand, India, Ireland, the Philippines, and El Salvador) was analyzed. For both subjects and partners the length of the fertile phase was significantly longer in those expressing poor satisfaction than for those in whom satisfaction was classified as good, very good, or excellent. A similar correlation existed between the number of days of abstinence and satisfaction, whereas the total duration of the infertile phase was less strongly related to the degree of satisfaction. Length of fertile phase is the most significant determinant of the degree of satisfaction.
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  6. 6

    NFP internationally: an overview.

    Lanctot CA

    In: Ireland. Dept. of Health, World Health Organization [WHO]. International Seminar on Natural Methods of Family Planning, Dun Laoghaire, County Dublin, Ireland, October 8-9, 1979. [Dublin, Ireland, Dept. of Health, 1979]. 166-76.

    This paper summarizes the international development of National Family Planning (NFP) over the last 25 years in view of: 1) recent developments, 2) status of NFP in various countries, 3) popularity of NFP in terms of use, effectiveness, and acceptibility, and 4) the potential of NFP. 3 phases are outlined: 1) Clinical phase before 1955 when basic discoveries in reproductive physiology were achieved, the rhythm method was popularized, and experiments for measuring basal body temperature (BBT) were developed; 2) pioneer phase (1955-70) when NFP centers developed empirical tests of monitoring techniques, the Billings or ovulation method (OM) was developed, and sympto-thermal methods became popular; 3) popularization phase (1970-present) when NFP methods were popularized. Current research includes clinical trials for effectiveness, education, NFP instruction, and basic research into operating procedures and psychosocial factors of NFP. Major programs include the World Organization of the Ovulation Method by Billings (WOOMB), a program devoted to OM methods of NFP, and the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP), a program devoted to the development of natural associations of NFP interests. IFFLP now has members in over 70 countries (in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, Central and South America, and Europe). IFFLP devotes itself to knowledge or technology transfer projects in centers which hold workshops and work towards developing national organizations worldwide. 80-90% of the NFP programs are Catholic inspired although more than 50% of the users of NFP are non-Catholic. The popularity of NFP has been limited, if not declining, in some countries, although 50% of the family planning population in Japan practice the Ogino method of NFP. This is because of the advances in other contraceptive devices and the limits of NFP in terms of effectiveness and perceptions about the method. Recent developments in NFP suggest that: 1) effectiveness is 1-5 conceptions/100 women, 2) education and instruction may reduce the risk, 3) side effects of other contraceptive techniques are increasingly found to be damaging, and 4) behavioral insights into NFP is increasing because of ecological, health, and other concerns. The potential of NFP programs is compared to the natural childbirth movement in maternity care. Development of the potential is related to education, instruction, and perceptions about the value of NFP. Measures need to be taken to develop culturally appropriate out-reach programs, quality standards for NFP teachers, standardized service records, follow-up guidelines, health referrals, and administrative frameworks.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Ovulation method of natural family planning.

    Connell-Tatum EB

    Fertility and Sterility. 1981 Nov; 36(5):551-52.

    Past practices of Natural Family Planning (NFP) have included such techniques as: 1) calendar rhythm in which a constant mathematical relationship was calculated between the day of ovulation and the beginning of the succeeding menstrual period, 2) temperature rhythm in which sexual intercourse is permitted by observing that the basal body temperature rises at the time of ovulation, 3) a combination of calendar and temperature rhythm methods, 4) paper test strips which measure glucose and electrolytes in vaginal secretions, 5) electronic devices of various sorts which record changes in the potentials of the pelvic organs at the time of ovulation, and 6) recent developments in computer technology which measure a number of variables. All of these techniques depend upon the identification of the fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle. More recent studies by the World Health Organization have analyzed the teaching phase of NFP and the effectiveness phase of NFP using the detection of ovulation by following changes in the quality of cervical mucus. These studies tested 869 women with varied backgrounds in 5 countries. The data support the fact that many motivated women can detect ovulation reasonably accurately by following changes in their cervical mucus (the Billings method), although teaching time and motivation are considerable. Long-term and detailed data are necessary to determine the value of these methods. The advantage of NFP is the avoidance of drugs and devices. Disadvantages are that demands are placed on the sex life of couples, and there are associations between failures and increased rates of congenital abnormalities.
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  8. 8

    Research in natural family planning.

    Spieler JM

    In: Zimmerman A, ed. Natural family planning: nature's way--God's way. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, De Rance, 1980. 121-3.

    Research on the natural methods of family planning and on the development of new methods for the determination of the fertile period are priority areas of the Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization (WHO). Problems unique to the delivery and use of the natural family planning methods include the accurate identification of the fertile days of the menstrual cycle, the number of days of abstinence required, the implementation of abstinence if pregnancy is not desired, and the need for daily continued motivation and cooperation of both partners. These problems, particularly the need for abstinence, are regarded as overwhelming by many people and need careful consideration before natural family planning is suggested or adopted. As it is now being practiced, natural family planning is a relatively new development that has had only token research support compared with the money which has been spent over the last 20 years on the development and testing of contraceptives. Except for WHO and the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the international and national research councils and agencies are giving little research attention to natural family planning. The 1st multicentered and cross cultural evaluation of the ovulation method was established by WHO 3 years ago. Among the challenges facing natural family planning that require research are the following: the development of uniform data collection tools; the identification of the psychosocial and psychosexual factors affecting the demand, choice and use of natural family planning; and the definition of the conditions under which natural family planning can be applied. A challenge facing advocates of natural family planning in the 1980s is to strengthen the basis of natural family planning methods through good scientific research and to obtain the financial support needed to do so.
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  9. 9

    Second International Congress, IFFLP.

    Flynn A

    International Review of Natural Family Planning. 1981 Spring; 5(1):83-90.

    The second International Congress of the International Federation of Family Life Promotion (IFFLP) held in Ireland in September 24 to October 1, 1980 was conducted to provide a forum for issues relating to natural family planning (NFP). The Congress was divided into 3 components: 1) scientific status, program development, and NFP programs in their cultural contexts; 2) the IFFLP general assembly; and 3) trainer's workshop. 2 NFP effectiveness studies (Los Angeles study and Colombia study) both comparing the ovulation method and the sympto-thermal method were discussed in terms of recruitment, training, dropouts, and conclusions. Recruitment in both studies was very low (2-3% of population in the Los Angeles study, and less for the Colombia study), raising questions relating to the measure of acceptability of natural methods in the population concerned and the nature of the constraints of the study. Dropout rate reached an alarming 70% at the end of a year in both studies, raising the questions of the validity of the life-table analysis presented. The Pearl Index values for both studies were very high: for the LA study, 18.5/100 woman-years for the sympto-thermal method and 32/100 woman-years for the ovulation method; for the Colombia study, 33/100 for the sympto-thermal method and 35/100 for the ovulation method. The following were deemed as important scientific advances in NFP: 1) clarification of the concept of "basic infertile" pattern of preovulatory mucus (unchanged pattern day after day means continuing infertility); 2) use of cervical mucus as one of the most important indices in infertile/subfertile patients and also during lactation and premenopause; and 3) development of methods for measuring levels of estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide to predict start and end of fertile phase. A paper presented on the use of the Billings Ovulation Method by 82 postpartum women followed up for an average of 16 months showed that only 4 unplanned pregnancies occurred (2 method and 2 user failures), and 97.8% of the women learned to recognize their postpartum mucus pattern. The Pearl Index was 7.3/100 woman-years and overall method failure rate was 3.6. Other topics discussed were NFP program services and developments in NFP by zonal groups.
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  10. 10

    Natural family planning.

    Spieler J

    World Health. 1978 Aug-Sep; 20-1.

    The success of natural family planning (NFP) methods which use the pattern of the menstrual cycle to regulate fertility, depends on the quality of instruction provided to the user as well as on user understanding and motivation. In response to a request to help improve the educational aspect, WHO has developed educational materials for use by nonphysicians to form a standard NFP curriculum. These materials are currently being evaluated in several countries to determine the minimal information required to teach and practice NFP. A basic understanding of reproductive biology is essential for teaching and practicing NFP. Women users are taught to identify ovulation by observation of the cyclical changes in cervical mucus and by recording basal body temperature. Teachers are informed about the effects of pituitary hormones on reproduction. In addition, the materials include information on psychological and behavioral aspects of NFP.
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  11. 11

    The ovulation method and PP (Planned Parenthood).


    PP News. 1978 Jun-Sep; 1(3):4.

    One of Planned Parenthood of America's 1st formal clinic courses in the ovulation method of birth control has seen more than 350 clients, and has resulted in encouraging preliminary figures on contraceptive success, in addition to winning the support of the clinic staff, and a favorable community reaction. The ovulation method utilizes periodic abstinence from coitus, based on the way the woman's cervical mucus varies at different stages in the menstrual cycle. Clients were 1st given background information and a chart, and after recording a complete cycle, returned for a follow-up interview. From January-September 1978, out of 292 women attending the 1st session, 120 continued through the 2nd follow-up. Of these 120, there were 3 pregnancies, but no method failures because all 3 women knew they were fertile at the time of coitus. The role of the man in the program is emphasized and supported. The author, who was also the instructor, concludes that Planned Parenthood clinics should be aware and take advantage of growing interest in this form of fertility awareness.
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  12. 12

    Ovulation research begins: WHO assists RP study.

    IMCH Newsletter 8(94): 1, 3. July 1977.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is sponsoring clinical studies in El Salvador, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and the Philippines into the Ovulation Method (OM) of birth control. The method, a variation of the rhythm method, involves a woman's self-analysis of the wetness or dryness of her genital area. Wetness would indicate imminent ovulation and sexual activity could be regulated accordingly. Advantages of OM are: 1) acceptability to Catholics, 2) no necessity for basal temperature taking, 3) easy charting, and 4) no complications and side effects. Procedure of the WHO-sponsored trials is explained.
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  13. 13

    The ovulation method: How effective is it?


    Population News Service. 1977; 2(2):1-5.

    Clinical trials are underway in El Salvador, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and the Philippines as part of a World Health Organization (WHO) test of the reliability of the ovulation method (OM) of fertility control. OM, a variation of the rhythm system, uses observations of the mucus flowing from the vagina and the sensation of wetness or dryness of the genitals. The genitals are wet during the ovulation period and dry during the safe period. Principal investigator for the Philippine part of the trial is Dr. Vincente Rosales, director of the Institute for Study of Human Reproduction, University of Santo Tomas. He is interviewed about the potential of the method. The teaching chart to be used in the trials is reproduced.
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  14. 14

    Catholic perspectives on population issues.

    Murphy FX; Erhart JF

    Population Bulletin. 1975; 30(6):1-32.

    Catholic teachings on human sexuality, love, and marriage are traced from the days of the early church to the present in section dealing with the papal perspective, traditional teachings, the phenomenon of birth control, the love ethic, a post-World War 2 reorientation of moral thinking as revealed in Vatican Council 2, the Papal Birth Control Commi ssion, and the Papal Encyclical, Humanae vitae, and reactions to the encyclical. The teachings are not seen as absolutes but as expressions of values which have shifted with the cultural patterns of the ages. The one area of strict prohibition has been a ban on artificial birth control, most recently upheld in the 1968 Humanae vitae, much to the con sternation of many laymen and clerics. While to many the edict may have seemed to fly in the face of the future by denying the use of artificial means of contraception, what it has done, in fact, is to awaken Catholics to the need to take personal and immediate responsibility for their sexual and other moral acts. Individuals should follow the dictates of their well-formed consciences rather than blindly follow the ir bishops and pastors. Papal intransigence on the issue of contraceptives, however, has forced Catholic thinkers and theologians to face the issue and work out a more realistic Catholic attitude toward population policies and birth control.
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  15. 15

    Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 5 p.

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a British colony in the South Pacific, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA was established in 1969 and the government is now integrating family planning into its Maternal and Child Health Services. Public opinion generally favors family planning and family planning education. Charts of services provided over a period of years by the FPA show increasing numbers of acceptors, with the IUD the contin ually increasing favorite. Current educational, research, and evaluation work is summarized. Other organizations have aided in the campaign for family planning.
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  16. 16

    Natural family planning including breast-feeding.

    Bonnar J

    In: Mishell DR Jr, ed. Advances in fertility research. Vol. 1. New York, Raven Press, 1982. 1-18.

    This discussion of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: calculation of the calendar method; the basal body temperature method; the ovulation method; sympto-thermal methods; international studies on NFP; effectiveness of NFP; breastfeeding and birth spacing; psychological and psychosexual aspects of NFP; and research and development of new methods to determine the fertile period. The calendar method, the oldest technique for determining the fertile period, involves the identification of the fertile time from the records of the previous 6-12 menstrual cycles. The temperature or thermal method depends on the identification of the rise in the basal body temperature (BBT) from a relatively low level during the follicular phase to a relatively higher level during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The basis of the ovulation method is that the cervical glands are highly sensitive indicators of the estrogen level in the blood and thus accurately reflect the follicular maturation in the ovary. In order to use the ovulation method, the woman must learn to recognize the sequence of changes in the quality and quantity of her mucus and the associated sensation at the vulva. The sympto-thermal methods incorporate several markers of ovarian function in order to define the infertile period with greater accuracy. From the perspective of fertility control, it should be recognized that traditional breastfeeding has a central regulating role in the spacing of births and is of considerable importance where methods of fertility control are either unacceptable or unavailable. Couples who follow the rules of NFP methods have a highly effective means of fertility regulation with method failure rates of 0.5-3.0 pregnancies in 1300 cycles. In general use, the methods are around 80% effective. The major advantage of NFP is that no hormones or chemicals are introduced into the woman's body. The couple oriented method promotes both self knowledge and self reliance. NFP calls for an education rather than a medical delivery system, and it aims to make the users both autonomous and potential educators of other users. The major problem with NFP is the modification of the sexual behavior involved and the extent of motivation necessary for successful use. Easy to use and inexpensive tests that identify the fertile period and ovulation would be useful for fertility control, and the World Health Organization task force is currently at work on the development of new technology in this field.
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  17. 17

    Periodic abstinence for family planning.

    Kleinman RL

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1983. 60 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)

    This publication provides comprehensive information and instructions for the various ways of using periodic abstinence for contraception, along with a restatement of the position of the International Planned Parenthood Federation that periodic abstinence cannot be considered an equal alternative to other more effective family planning methods but that it should be offered by family planning associations for couples desiring it for religious or other reasons. The manual describes the historical development of the abstinence methods and reviews the physiology of the menstrual cycle as background for the careful instructions for each variant. The methods covered include the basal body temperature method in which the "3 over 6" rule for identifying the temperature shift is endorsed but others, such as the cervical mucus method, cervical palpation, sympto-thermal method, and calendar method are described. Other chapters discuss the psychological and motivational aspects of use of periodic abstinence methods; identify research issues and present data on effectiveness especially of the cervical mucus and sympto-thermal methods; discuss side effects and advantages and disadvantages of the methods; and consider special problems of use in developing countries.
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  18. 18

    Biological approaches to ovulation detection.

    Bonnar J

    In: Jeffcoate SL, ed. Ovulation: methods for its prediction and detection. Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1983. 33-47. (Current Topics in Reproductive Endocrinology Volume 3)

    This chapter reviews certain recognizable biological effects that occur due to the major changes in the circulating blood levels of estrogen and progesterone and discusses the ongoing use of these biological signals for the self detection of ovulation and the fertile phase of the cycle. These biological changes include the basal body temperature, changes in the cervix and its mucus secretion, mittelschmerz, and the menstrual cycle molimina. The calculation or calendar method is the oldest technique for determining the fertile period and followed the work of Ogino (1930) and Knaus (1933). The fertile phase of the cycle was identified from the records of the previous 6-12 menstrual cycles. The potential fertile period was then calculated on the following basis: define the shortest and the longest menstrual cycle over the preceding 6 and preferable 12 cycles; the 1st day of the potentially fertile phase is the longest cycle minus 11 days. For a women whose menstrual cycles have varied between 26-31 days, the potential fertile period would be days 8-20 of the cycle. The greatest weakness of the calendar calculation is that it depends on a prediction, based on the menstrual history, of what is likely to occur and not on what is actually taking place. Very rapid electronic thermometers are now available which offer considerable advantages over the clinical thermometer. The daily taking and charting of the basal body temperature (BBT) is the simplest and most widely used method for detecting ovulation. To overcome the drawbacks of the calendar method and the BBT method for identifying the fertile period, John and Evelyn Billings of Melbourne in the early 1970s developed the ovulation method. Self recognition of cervical mucus symptoms provides the woman with a simple means of detecting the fertile phase of her cycle and the likely time of ovulation. Individual cycle variation in the preovulatory duration of the symptoms limits the position of the prediction, yet the "peak" day correlates better with the time of ovulation than the shift in BBT. In addition to effects on cervical mucus, estrogen also changes the morphology of the cervix. The preovulatory rise in estrogensoftens the tissues of the cervix and opens the cervical os. The softened cervix and gaping os with a cascade of clear mucus is a sign of optimal estrogen response and of imminent ovulation. A World Health Organization (WHO) multicenter study of the ovulation method provided a substantial amount of information of the normal menstrual cycle of a large number of women of proven fertility in the age group 18-39 years whose cycles were not influenced by the use of hormonal or other contraceptive methods.
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