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International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
UN urges broadcasters to air AIDS programmes. Entertainment is better than factual films for increasing awareness.
Lancet. 2004 Jan 24; 363(9405):295.UN secretary-general Kofi Annan hosted a roundtable meeting at the UN headquarters in New York on Jan 15 to launch the Global AIDS Media Initiative—a project to help increase awareness of AIDS by use of international media. Executive representatives from over 20 broadcast media companies were invited to pledge their support and to commit airtime to entertainment programmes involving AIDS-related storylines. “As leaders of the media, you have the power and the reach to disseminate the information people need to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS”, Annan told delegates. (excerpt)
Round Table. 2000 Oct; 357:577-583.Gender equality is central to democracy and to the wellbeing and future prosperity of societies. Yet three decades after a new understanding of development began to emerge and a way of integrating women into the development process was sought, gender equality still has not been realized. There has been considerable progress for women, who account for over 50 per cent of the world's population, yet much more still has to be achieved. Traditional perceptions of the rôles of women and men in society must be rethought and men's stake in gender equality understood. This involves the reorganization of the basic institutions of society-the market, Government and the family. Also, the media, which helps define what we think and what our place is in society, have a crucial rôle to play in changing people's perceptions and stereotyped views of the rôles of men and women. In the Platform for Action that emerged from the United Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, the media were identified as one of the major areas of concern. Gender sensitizing the media must be a priority. (author's)
United Kingdom. BBC's Sexwise provides critical sexual health information worldwide. [Royaume-Uni. L'émission " Sexwise " de la BBC fournit des informations critiques sur la santé sexuelle à un public mondial]
Making the Connection. 2002; 2(1):6-7.The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) are working together to speak to people in their own languages about sexual health and reproductive rights through a program called Sexwise. Sexwise consists of a Web site, book, and radio programs that have been translated into 22 languages by the BBC in collaboration with IPPF and national Family Planning Associations. The program, which has spanned the globe in three phases, aims to provide listeners, readers, and online users with accurate information about sexual health issues along with useful contacts about sexual and reproductive rights. Hence, this collaboration between BBC and IPPF shows how industry and nongovernmental organizations can successfully link their missions to promote public health and well-being.
FORUM. 1993 Dec; 9(2):32-3.Elements of the 1993 International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region Executive Directors Meeting in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, are presented. While the directors discussed public relations and marketing over the 2-day meeting held September 8-9, a major highlight was the Profamilia presentation on the progression of an advertising campaign over a 10-year period. Developed to support Profamilia's contraceptive social marketing program, the campaign consisted of highly professional and commercial television and radio advertising spots. The opening spot promoted use of Microgynon, an oral contraceptive. The public, however, negatively perceived the campaign as promoting a contraceptive designed to facilitate married women's infidelity. A 2nd spot launched to counteract this perceived message proved to be extremely successful. Profamilia's experience in this campaign demonstrates how a family planning association may generate massive public impact with well-designed materials, but also just how sensitive family planning is and how promotional campaigns can encounter unexpected pitfalls.
[Motion pictures and commercial television: a co-production of public and private sectors to promote family planning in Mexico] Cine y television comercial: una coproduccion de los sectores publico y privado para promover la planificacion familiar en Mexico.
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the II Congreso Latino-Americano de Planificacion Familiar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 20-24, 1989. , 6,  p.A film about a young couple experiencing infertility and a television series which introduces new customs in each independent chapter were 2 productions of a cooperative program of the private and public sectors to promote family planning in Mexico. Each production questions sexual stereotypes and opens the possibility of reflection on themes related to sexuality and family planning. The target group is young people aged 15-30 years. The topics covered were selected on the basis of KAP studies to identify areas of conflict and of common interest. The Office of Health provided technical advice and coordination and provided 70% of the financing for the film and 50% for the television series using UN Fund for Population Activities funds. The films combine entertainment with educational content. The producers, script writers, and specialists in sexuality and family planning worked together to develop the scripts by defining the objectives of the project and identifying the most relevant themes. The film, "Let's Try It Again" (Va de Nuez) employed scenes from everyday life in a comedy format with characters displaying a mixture of positive and negative characteristics. The topic of infertility, a perinatal death, and an unplanned pregnancy in a young adolescent were the vehicle for consideration of several themes related to reproductive life: the decision to have a child, intracouple communications, ideas about paternity and maternity, unprotected sexual relations, the importance of the time between marriage and the 1st birth, and male infertility, among others. The weekly television series "The Good Customs" (Las Buenas Costumbres) consisted of 26 episodes lasting 24 minutes each. Each episode is independent in plot development but all are thematically related. The protagonist is a physician. Various common and recurring situations in Mexican life are approached through the physician-patient relationship.
Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.
GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
New York, New York, Longman, 1988. xv, 223 p.In 1964 Wilbur Schramm, on a grant from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), wrote a book called "Mass Media and National Development." It painted a glowing picture in which the mass media would reveal the way to development and enable the Third World countries to achieve in a few decades the development that had occurred over centuries in the West. By the 1970s it became clear that population growth was overtaking development. The Third World nations began to see the mass media as tools of the conspiracy of transnational corporations in their to keep the Third World a source of cheap labor. The Third World countries began to seek an alternate route to development, without help from either the East or the West. Their ideal and model was China, where the radical alternative had been shown to work. The Third Word countries joined together as the "Non-Aligned MOvement," a organization which had been founded in Indonesia in 1955. By the 1970s the Third Word countries constituted a majority in UNESCO, which they turned into a forum of resentment against the Western mass media, which they perceived as using dominance over world news flow to keep the Third World in a state of cultural dependency on the West. The poverty of the Third World nations, they claimed, was the heritage of colonialism, and the West owed them restitution. The Western news media were identified as the modern day equivalent of the colonial armies of imperialism. The debate over the dominance of Western influence in world news flow was launched in UNESCO by a request from the Soviet Union in 1972 for "a declaration on the fundamental principles governing the use of the mass media with a view to strengthening peace and understanding and combatting war, propaganda, radicalism, and apartheid." The debate in UNESCO took on a new name, the "New World Information Order," in which the Third World nations argued that they had the right to restrict the free flow of news across their borders. UNESCO Director General, Amadou M 'Bow, tabled the resolution and appointed a commission, headed by Sean MacBride, to undertake general review of communications problems in modern society. The report, entitled "Many Voices, One World," was in many ways vague, but it at least endorsed the Western values of free flow of information. The Us offered technological assistance to the Third World under the auspices of the International Program for the Development of Communication. This institution was designed as a world clearinghouse for communication development, but as such it accomplished little. Meanwhile, the Third World countries gave priority to developing their own national news agencies and the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, dedicated to the "journalism of national development." What this meant, if effect, was journalism limited to "development news" (which by definition was always good)and to "protocol news," i.e., ribbon-cutting and other ceremonial events. By the time of the US withdrawal from UNESCO at the end of 1984, the issue was becoming, if not resolved, at least quiescent, with some indications of progress. At the 1983 conference at Talloires, the World Press Freedom Committee and the Associated Press put together a list of 300 journalistic exchange, training, and internship programs in 70 countries. The World Bank issued a report on "Telecommunications and Economic Development," and a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Telecommunications Union pointed out the cost-benefit relationship of telecommunications to economic development. Finally, a report by an international commission headed by Sir Donald Maitland stressed the importance of shifting existing resources to telecommunications so that basic communications services would be available to everyone on earth by the early 21st century.
[Unpublished] 1987 Jun.  p.To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
Draft team member contributions to mid-term evaluation of the Population and Family Planning Project (608-0171) in Morocco.
[Unpublished] 1988 Mar. 13 p.The draft team member contributions to the mid-term evaluation of the population and family planning project in Morocco examine current progress and address future needs. Increased awareness of at least 1 method of family planning was attributed to a USAID-funded project. But, problems of access, religious constraints, and lack of method-specific media campaigns need to be addressed. An increased effort to direct promotion efforts toward men is needed, as a prior immunization program showed that the husband was a key factor in encouraging mothers to bring their children to be vaccinated. Because the local health worker plays a critical role at the community level, training and support for these workers should be emphasized. Media-specific and audience-specific campaigns, by the government and private sector, should focus on the most cost-effective means of reaching the provincial level population. Donor organizations (such as UNICEF, UNFPA and USAID) should address the IEC needs identified by the central health education office, whose role and supporting functions need to be strengthened. Content of family planning materials must be method-specific, using a systematic methodology to address problems of inappropriateness, inadequate contraceptive mix, and lack of field worker training materials. Improved distribution methods for existing materials, as well as increased use of television and mass media are viable options. Using the community more effectively by encouraging leader motivation and instituting incentives could help to improve promotional and distributional activities at the provincial level. An evaluation of training needs revealed that the workshop method of training may be overemphasized, and most health workers expressed a desire for lengthened training. The private sector could be sensitized to public health issues and needs and, in conjunction with out of country technical assistance, produce effective social marketing of contraceptives within the Moroccan context. Coordination with other donors would be beneficial, with the exchange of documents and meetings between the groups.
[Unpublished] . 4 p.The Union of National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa/Program Exchange Center (URTNA/PEC) Family Health Project has been funded by Family Planning International Assistance to produce and exchange radio and TV programs on family planning issues. URTNA staff and offices in Dakar, Senegal and PEC staff and office in Nairobi, Kenya will administer the grant. 3 member countries will be selected from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Angola and Algeria for mini-grants of $2500-5000 to produce programs. 9 broadcast activities are suggested, such as short radio dramas on male responsibility for child spacing, workshops for broadcasters and health specialists, and evaluation of an existing broadcast. Details on how the program is to be administered and evaluated are presented. It is estimated that 18 radio, 9 TV tapes and 18 bulletins will be exchanged among participating countries during the grant's lifetime.
WORLD HEALTH. 1988 Mar; 15.1 day late last year, public health workers, educators, journalists, and government officials attended simultaneous meetings in more than 600 separate meetings throughout the Western Hemisphere for the First Pan American Teleconference on AIDS. The original site of the teleconference was Quito, Ecuador. The conference was transmitted simultaneously in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. The conference brought together international groups in 30 countries as well as scientific and technical experts in a massive 2-day educational and information effort that reached 60,000 people directly, and through the press, millions of people indirectly, with the latest information about the HIV infection. The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) worked closely with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in carrying the 16 hours of broadcast free of charge to 30 countries under its project SHARE (Satellites for Health and Rural Education), which is designed to provide free satellite use for transmissions on the delivery of health and education services in developing countries. The teleconference also permitted wide dissemination of 2 PAHO/WHO documentaries, one on AIDS and high-risk behavior, and another on AIDS education efforts around the world. A series of videotapes based on the teleconferences will be produced.
World Health. 1986 Apr; 23.Diarrheal diseases are the leading cause of sickness and death in Thailand. The problem is particularly severe in children under age 5 who account for about 40% of all cases and about 50% of all deaths due to diarrhea. In October 1980, Thailand began a program of national control of diarrheal disease. It had as its target a substantial reduction in mortality from acute diarrheal diseases through oral rehydration therapy (ORT) by way of the primary health care approach and reduced morbidity by promoting better nutritional and maternal and child health practices and safer water supply and sanitation. The government's Pharmaceutical Organization produces 750 milliliter packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) formula specifications. These are purchased by the Department of Communicable Diseases and distributed to all health facilities and to village health volunteers through the provincial health offices. Some villages have their own drug cooperatives run by village committees or by volunteers, where people also can buy ORS and other essential drugs. WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) are helping to supply training materials in the Thai language for health staff at all levels to familiarize them with clinical and program management. The volunteers themselves receive training as providers of ORS and as disseminators of health information. Since 1983, more and more messages reach the public through the mass media, especially television and radio. Most hospitals are able to screen slide sets and video cassettes about ORT and diarrhea prevention while the mothers sit in the waiting rooms. Between 1981-84, the proportion of the population under 5 years of age with access to ORT has risen from 12% to about 60% in areas where the program is fully developed. In areas where the program is fully developed, the use rate of ORS in the same group has gone up from 12% to 30%. Throughout Thailand as a whole, the use rate in children under 5 suffering from diarrhea is about 18%. The mortality rate from diarrhea in these young children fell from 4.97/100,000 in 1981 to 2.35/100,000 in 1983, a reduction of 53%. In 1984, the mortality rate increased from the previous year while the morbidity rate decreased. One reason may be that the most non-severe cases can be self-managed by ORT, while more severe cases are detected and referred by the village health volunteers and other health workers. This results in a higher number of deaths reported.
In: Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa, edited by Frank Okwu Ugboajah. [Oxford, England], Hans Zell Publishers, 1985. 74-84.Due to the fact the most independence came in the late 1950s and early 1960s, most of the new African nations faces a broadening gap between themselves and the developed world. Their media systems were inadequate fro an ascent to modernization, and a communications revolution in the Western world was threatening to make their systems even more antiquated. A wide array of individuals and national and international medis, business and governmental organizations and foundations provided assistance and cooperation for theis catch up process. Most, but not all, were motivated by a sincere desire to aid development. A perusal of some of these external groups' activities, in the form of projects, training schemes, bilateral exchanges, broadcasts, and organizational influences, should help the reader to gain insights into the nature and effects of such outside assistance. External assistance has been given both by individual nations and by multilateral cooperation to experimental programs and projects in several newly independent African nations. A few of the more successful projects are examined. Possibly the best known cooperatively sponsored projects have been those in rural radio, with Ghana's rural radio farm forum a prime example. UNESCO and the Canadian government cooperated in 1964-65 with the government of Ghana in a 6-month pilot project in which rural radio forums were tested in 60 villages. The project promoted the educational programs, organized listener groups, led follow-up discussions, and encouraged group action. A number of unique educational projects utilizing radio or television have been cooperatively supported. A wide range of bilateral programs involving the receiving countries have been devised to help the development of African media. Sometimes, due to their government-to-government nature, these programs have been suspect in the eyes of Africans. Several universities outside Africa have provided resources for assisting the African media systems. Most university programs are at least partially supported by governmental grants, but they usually are careful to avoid promulgation of a specific political viewpoint. Possibly the most significant and welcome external cooperation and aid has been in the form of training of African media personnel. Help in this task has come from numerous sources, including organizations in former colonial mother countries. Short courses and training institutes ranging from a few days in length to 6 months or more have been sponsored by outside media organizations, governments, and foundations. In 1972, 40 nations outside Africa were broadcasting to the African continent. This situation remains virtually unchanged today. There is little question that outside broadcasts have influenced Africans.
[Unpublished] .  p.Zambia's mass media has the dual task of informing the public about development issues and about Zambia's role in the liberation wars of other south African countries. To adequately fulfill these tasks, the mass media must overcome communication obstacles which stem from the historical development of the nation's mass media system. In the past, Zambia's wealth was derived primarily from copper mining. As a result, development and urbanization was confined to the Copperbelt region of the country. The mass media was developed with money derived from the copper industry and created to serve the needs of the urban elite residing in the Copperbelt. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and is, therefore, excluded both as an audience and as a source of news. Efforts are now underway to improve the 2-way flow of information between urban and rural areas. This flow is essential for promoting public understanding of development issues. To increase the flow from the rural areas to the urban areas government reporters are now assigned to each provincial information office. The reporters send all the news from their areas by telex to the government's Information Department but also to the Zambian News Agency, which then distributes it to radio and television stations and to the newspapers. Efforts to increase the information flow from the urban areas to the rural areas includes a plan to introduce television into all the rural areas of the country. Currently, television is available in the major urban province and in 1 rural province. In reference to newspapers, there are 2 major dailies in the urban region and small government newspapers are published twice a month in each rural province. These rural newspapers are of poor quality. To improve news availability in rural areas, summaries of the news carried in the major daily urban papers are now published each week and distributed in the rural areas. An additional problem faced by the Zambian mass media is the need to depend on foreign news services for international news. These services tend to report African issues from a biased perspective and generally attribute the problems of African countries to tribalism or economic mismanagement. To overcome some of the problems associated with dependency on the foreign new services, Zambia recently joined the African Media Foundation. This organization will gather and distribute news from numerous African countries.