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Children. 2018 May 4; 5(5)Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000(-)2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan.
Effect of exclusive breastfeeding on selected adverse health and nutritional outcomes: a nationally representative study.
BMC Public Health. 2017 Nov 21; 17(1):889.BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence in support of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among infants in the first 6 months of birth, the debate over the optimal duration of EBF continues. This study examines the effect of termination of EBF during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of birth on a set of adverse health and nutritional outcomes of infants. METHODS: Three waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data were analysed using multivariate regression. The adverse health outcomes were: an episode of diarrhea, fever or acute respiratory infection (ARI) during the 2 weeks prior to the survey. Nutritional outcomes were assessed by stunting (height-for-age), wasting (weight-for-height) and underweight (weight-for-age). Population attributable fraction was calculated to estimate percentages of these six outcomes that could have been prevented by supplying EBF. RESULTS: Fifty-six percent of infants were exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months. Lack of EBF increased the odds of diarrhea, fever and ARI. Among the babies aged 6 months or less 27.37% of diarrhea, 13.24% of fever and 8.94% of ARI could have been prevented if EBF was not discontinued. If EBF was terminated during 0-2 months, 2-4 months the odds of becoming underweight were 2.16 and 2.01 times higher, respectively, than babies for whom EBF was not terminated. CONCLUSION: Children who are not offered EBF up to 6 months of their birth may suffer from a range of infectious diseases and under-nutrition. Health promotion and other public health interventions should be enhanced to encourage EBF at least up to six-month of birth. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Data of this study were collected following the guidelines of ICF International and Bangladesh Medical Research Council. The registration number of data collection is 132,989.0.000 and the data-request was registered on September 11, 2016.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014.  p. (WHO/NMH/NHD/14.2)Recognizing that accelerated global action is needed to address the pervasive and corrosive problem of the double burden of malnutrition, in 2012 the World Health Assembly Resolution 65.6 endorsed a Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition, which specified a set of six global nutrition targets that by 2025 aim to: achieve a 40% reduction in the number of children under-5 who are stunted; achieve a 50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age; achieve a 30% reduction in low birth weight; ensure that there is no increase in childhood overweight; increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50%; reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%. As part of its efforts, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a series of six policy briefs, linked to each of the global targets, to guide national and local policy-makers on what actions should be taken at scale, in order to achieve the targets. Recognizing that the six targets are interlinked, many evidence-based, effective interventions can help make progress toward multiple targets. The purpose of these briefs is to consolidate the evidence around which interventions and areas of investment need to be scaled up, and to guide decision-makers on what actions need to be taken in order to achieve real progress toward improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition. (Excerpts)