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  1. 1
    351137
    Peer Reviewed

    The Portuguese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form.

    Zubaran C; Foresti K; Schumacher M; Thorell MR; Amoretti A; Muller L; Dennis CL

    Journal of Human Lactation. 2010 Aug; 26(3):297-303.

    The objective of this study was to translate and psychometrically assess a Portuguese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The original English version of the BSES-SF was translated to Portuguese and tested among a sample of 89 mothers in southern Brazil from the 2nd to 12th postpartum week followed by face-to-face interviews. The mean total score of the Portuguese version of the BSES-SF was 63.6 +/- 6.22. The reliability analysis of each item in the scale attained significant Cronbach's alphas of 0.63 or superior. The Cronbach's alpha generated by the entire range of 14 questions was 0.71. A factor analysis identified one factor that contributed to 20% of the variance. This study demonstrates that the original English version of the BSES-SF was successfully adapted to Portuguese. The Portuguese version of the BSES-SF constitutes a reliable research instrument for evaluating breastfeeding self-efficacy in Brazil.
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  2. 2
    311859
    Peer Reviewed

    Feeding of nonbreastfed children from 6 to 24 months of age: Conclusions of an informal meeting on infant young child feeding organized by the World Organization, Geneva, March 8-10, 2004.

    Informal Working Group on Feeding of Nonbreastfed Children

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25(4):403-406.

    According to current United Nations recommendations, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life and thereafter should receive appropriate complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding up to two years or beyond. However, there are a number of infants who will not enjoy the benefits of breastfeeding in the early months of life or for whom breastfeeding will stop before the recommended period of two years or beyond. A group that calls for particular attention consists of the infants of mothers who are known to be HIV positive. To reduce the risk of HIV transmission, it is recommended that when it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe, these mothers give replacement feeding from birth. Otherwise, they should breastfeed exclusively and stop as soon as alternative feeding options become feasible. Another group includes those infants whose mothers have died, or who for some reason do not breastfeed. (excerpt)
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