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I beg you...breastfeed the baby, things changed: infant feeding experiences among Ugandan mothers living with HIV in the context of evolving guidelines to prevent postnatal transmission.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Jan 29; 18(1):188.BACKGROUND: For women living with HIV (WLWH) in low- and middle-income countries, World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding guidelines now recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by mixed feeding until 24 months, alongside lifelong maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). These recommendations represent the sixth major revision to WHO infant feeding guidelines since 1992. We explored how WLWH in rural Uganda make infant feeding decisions in light of evolving recommendations. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 postpartum Ugandan WLWH accessing ART, who reported pregnancy < 2 years prior to recruitment. Interviews were conducted between February-August 2014 with babies born between March 2012-October 2013, over which time, the regional HIV treatment clinic recommended lifelong ART for all pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+). Content analysis was used to identify major themes. Infant feeding experiences was an emergent theme. NVivo 10 software was used to organize analyses. RESULTS: Among 20 women, median age was 33 years [IQR: 28-35], number of livebirths was 3 [IQR: 2-5], years on ART was 2.3 [IQR: 1.5-5.1], and 95% were virally suppressed. Data revealed that women valued opportunities to reduce postnatal transmission. However, women made infant feeding choices that differed from recommendations due to: (1) perception of conflicting recommendations regarding infant feeding; (2) fear of prolonged infant HIV exposure through breastfeeding; and (3) social and structural constraints shaping infant feeding decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: WLWH face layered challenges navigating evolving infant feeding recommendations. Further research is needed to examine guidance and decision-making on infant feeding choices to improve postpartum experiences and outcomes. Improved communication about changes to recommendations is needed for WLWH, their partners, community members, and healthcare providers.
Measuring postnatal care contacts for mothers and newborns: An analysis of data from the MICS and DHS surveys.
Journal of Global Health. 2017 Dec; 7(2):020502.Background: The postnatal period represents a vulnerable phase for mothers and newborns where both face increased risk of morbidity and death. WHO recommends postnatal care (PNC) for mothers and newborns to include a first contact within 24 hours following the birth of the child. However, measuring coverage of PNC in household surveys has been variable over time. The two largest household survey programs in low and middle-income countries, the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and USAID-funded Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), now include modules that capture these measures. However, the measurement approach is slightly different between the two programs. We attempt to assess the possible measurement differences that might affect comparability of coverage measures. Methods: We first review the standard questionnaires of the two survey programs to compare approaches to collecting data on postnatal contacts for mothers and newborns. We then illustrate how the approaches used can affect PNC coverage estimates by analysing data from four countries; Bangladesh, Ghana, Kygyz Republic, and Nepal, with both MICS and DHS between 2010-2015. Results: We found that tools implemented todate by MICS and DHS (up to MICS round 5 and up to DHS phase 6) have collected PNC information in different ways. While MICS dedicated a full module to PNC and distinguishes immediate vs later PNC, DHS implemented a more blended module of pregnancy and postnatal and did not systematically distinguish those phases. The two survey programs differred in the way questions on postnatal care for mothers and newbors were framed. Subsequently, MICS and DHS surveys followed different methodological approach to compute the global indicator of postnatal contacts for mothers and newborns within two days following delivery. Regardless of the place of delivery, MICS estimates for postnatal contacts for mothers and newbors appeared consistently higher than those reported in DHS. The difference was however, far more pronounced in case of newborns. Conclusions: Difference in questionnaires and the methodology adopted to measure PNC have created comparability issues in the coverage levels. Harmonization of survey instruments on postnatal contacts will allow comparable and better assessment of coverage levels and trends.
Does postnatal care have a role in improving newborn feeding? A study in 15 sub-Saharan African countries.
Journal of Global Health. 2017 Dec; 7(2):020506.Background: Breastfeeding is known as a key intervention to improve newborn health and survival while prelacteal feeds (liquids other than breastmilk within 3 days of birth) represents a departure from optimal feeding practices. Recent programmatic guidelines from the WHO and UNICEF outline the need to improve newborn feeding and points to postnatal care (PNC) as a potential mechanism to do so. This study examines if PNC and type of PNC provider are associated with key newborn feeding practices: breastfeeding within 1 day and prelacteal feeds. Methods: We use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries to estimate 4 separate pooled, multilevel, logistic regression models to predict the newborn feeding outcomes. Findings: PNC is significantly associated with increased breastfeeding within 1day (OR = 1.35, P < 0.001) but is not associated with PLFs (OR = 1.04, P = 0.195). PNC provided by nurses, midwives and untrained health workers is also associated with higher odds of breastfeeding within 1 day of birth (OR = 1.39, P < 0.001, (OR = 1.95, P < 0.001) while PNC provided by untrained health workers is associated with increased odds of PLFs (OR = 1.20, P = 0.017). Conclusions: PNC delivered through customary care may be an effective strategy to improve the breastfeeding within 1 day but not to discourage PLFs. Further analysis should be done to examine how these variables operate at the country level to produce finer programmatic insight.
Program Implementation of Option B+ at a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-Supported HIV Clinic Improves Clinical Indicators But Not Retention in Care in Mbarara, Uganda.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 2017 Aug; 31(8):335-341.2013 WHO guidelines for prevention of mother to child transmission recommend combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant women, regardless of CD4 count (Option B/B+). We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a government-operated HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda before and after implementation of Option B+ to assess the impact on retention in care. We limited our analysis to women not on ART at the time of their first reported pregnancy with CD4 count >350. We fit regression models to estimate relationships between calendar period (Option A vs. Option B+) and the primary outcome of interest, retention in care. One thousand and sixty-two women were included in the analysis. Women were more likely to start ART within 6 months of pregnancy in the Option B+ period (68% vs. 7%, p < 0.0001) and had significantly greater increases in CD4 count 1 year after pregnancy (+172 vs. -5 cells, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in the proportion of women retained in care 1 year after pregnancy (73% vs. 70%, p = 0.34). In models adjusted for age, distance to clinic, marital status, and CD4 count, Option B+ was associated with a nonsignificant 30% increased odds of retention in care at 1 year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.73, p = 0.06]. After transition to an Option B+ program, pregnant women with CD4 count >350 were more likely to initiate combination therapy; however, interventions to mitigate losses from HIV care during pregnancy are needed to improve the health of women, children, and families.
Journal of Human Lactation. 2017 Feb; 33(1):140-148.BACKGROUND: Extended breastfeeding duration is common in India. Extended breastfeeding protects the infant from infectious disease and promotes child spacing. In the 1990s, the median breastfeeding duration in India was 24 months. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the median duration of breastfeeding in India and to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding to 24 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: This cross-sectional data analysis used nationally representative data from the 2011-2012 Indian Human Development Survey II. The outcome in this study was extended breastfeeding defined as breastfeeding to 24 months or more. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding. RESULTS: The median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months; approximately 25% of women breastfed 24 months or more. Women were at greater odds of breastfeeding 24 months or more if the infant was a boy compared with a girl, if the women lived in a rural area compared with an urban area, if the women were married at a young age (< 17 vs. 20 years or older at marriage), and if the delivery was assisted by a friend or relative compared with a doctor. CONCLUSION: The median duration of breastfeeding has decreased by 50% from 1992-1993 to 2011-2012. The women who continue to breastfeed 24 months or more tend to be more traditional (i.e., living in rural areas, marrying young, and having family/friends as birth attendants). Further research to study the health effect of decreased breastfeeding duration is warranted.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Aug 10; 1-3.Written by the WHO/UNICEF NetCode author group, the comment focuses on the need to protect families from promotion of breast-milk substitutes and highlights new WHO Guidance on Ending Inappropriate Promotion of Foods for Infants and Young Children. The World Health Assembly welcomed this Guidance in 2016 and has called on all countries to adopt and implement the Guidance recommendations. NetCode, the Network for Global Monitoring and Support for Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and Subsequent Relevant World Health Assembly Resolutions, is led by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. NetCode members include the International Baby Food Action Network, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, Helen Keller International, Save the Children, and the WHO Collaborating Center at Metropol University. The comment frames the issue as a human rights issue for women and children, as articulated by a statement from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
An Investment Framework for Nutrition: Reaching the Global Targets for Stunting, Anemia, Breastfeeding, and Wasting.
Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 258 p.The report estimates the costs, impacts and financing scenarios to achieve the World Health Assembly global nutrition targets for stunting, anemia in women, exclusive breastfeeding and the scaling up of the treatment of severe wasting among young children. To reach these four targets, the world needs $70 billion over 10 years to invest in high-impact nutrition-specific interventions. This investment would have enormous benefits: 65 million cases of stunting and 265 million cases of anemia in women would be prevented in 2025 as compared with the 2015 baseline. In addition, at least 91 million more children would be treated for severe wasting and 105 million additional babies would be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life over 10 years. Altogether, achieving these targets would avert at least 3.7 million child deaths. Every dollar invested in this package of interventions would yield between $4 and $35 in economic returns, making investing in early nutrition one of the best value-for-money development actions. Although some of the targets -- especially those for reducing stunting in children and anemia in women -- are ambitious and will require concerted efforts in financing, scale-up, and sustained commitment, recent experience from several countries suggests that meeting these targets is feasible. These investments in the critical 1000 day window of early childhood are inalienable and portable and will pay lifelong dividends -- not only for children directly affected but also for us all in the form of more robust societies -- that will drive future economies.
Breastmilk Output in a Disadvantaged Community with High HIV Prevalence as Determined by the Deuterium Oxide Dose-to-Mother Technique.
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2016 Mar; 11(2):64-9.INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines for HIV-infected mothers are exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and then continued breastfeeding for 12 months, provided the mother is receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Many African women perceive that breastmilk alone is not sufficient for their infant's nutritional requirements for the first 6 months of life, and mixed feeding is a common practice. METHODOLOGY: A stable isotope technique was used to determine breastmilk output volumes and maternal body composition objectively at five different time points in the first year of the infant's life. RESULTS: Breastmilk output volumes were high for HIV-infected mothers: 831 +/- 185 g/day at 6 weeks; 899 +/- 188 g/day at 3 months; 871 +/- 293 g/day at 6 months; 679 +/- 281 g/day at 9 months; and 755 +/- 287 g/day at 12 months. These high output volumes had no negative impact on the mother's fat-free mass. The breastmilk output volumes for HIV-uninfected mothers were not significantly different to the outputs for HIV-infected mothers at any of the time points (p > 0.05): 948 +/- 223 g/day at 6 weeks; 925 +/- 227 g/day at 3 months; 902 +/- 286 g/day at 6 months; 746 +/- 263 g/day at 9 months; and 713 +/- 264 g/day at 12 months. CONCLUSION: This study using objective methodology shows that breastmilk outputs of HIV-infected mothers were relatively high (and within published reference ranges), and mothers are able to provide sufficient breastmilk for their infants without compromising their own fat-free mass.
From the first hour of life: making the case for improved infant and young child feeding everywhere.
2016 Oct; New York, New York, UNICEF, 2016 Oct. 104 p.Food and feeding practices from birth to age 2 have a profound impact on the rest of a child’s life. Good nutrition helps children exercise their rights to grow, learn, develop, participate and become productive members of their communities. This report provides a global status update on infant and young child feeding practices, and puts forth recommendations for improving them.
Breastfeeding Medicine. 2015 Oct; 10(8):385-8.Add to my documents.
Contraception. 2016 Sep; 94(3):193-194.Add to my documents.
Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: National implementation of the international code. Status report 2016.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.This report provides updated information on the status of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions (“the Code”) in and by countries. It presents the legal status of the Code, including -- where such information is available -- to what extent Code provisions have been incorporated in national legal measures. The report also provides information on the efforts made by countries to monitor and enforce the Code through the establishment of formal mechanisms. Its findings and subsequent recommendations aim to improve the understanding of how countries are implementing the Code, what challenges they face in doing so, and where the focus must be on further efforts to assist them in more effective Code implementation.
Guideline: Updates on HIV and infant feeding. The duration of breastfeeding and support from health services to improve feeding practices among mothers living with HIV.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016.  p.The objective of this guideline is to improve the HIV-free survival of HIV-exposed infants by providing guidance on appropriate infant feeding practices and use of ARV drugs for mothers living with HIV and by updating WHO-related tools and training materials. The guideline is intended mainly for countries with high HIV prevalence and settings in which diarrhoea, pneumonia and undernutrition are common causes of infant and child mortality. However, it may also be relevant to settings with a low prevalence of HIV depending on the background rates and causes of infant and child mortality. This guideline aims to help Member States and their partners in their efforts to make informed decisions on the appropriate nutrition actions to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the global targets set in the comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition, the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) and the Global Health Sector Strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections 2016-2021. The target audience for this guideline includes: (1) national policy-makers in health ministries; (2) programme managers working in child health, essential drugs and health worker training; (3) health-care providers, researchers and clinicians providing services to pregnant women and mothers living with HIV at various levels of health care; and (4) development partners providing financial and/or technical support for child health programmes, including those in conflict and emergency settings. (Excerpt)
Efficacy of WHO recommendation for continued breastfeeding and maternal cART for prevention of perinatal and postnatal HIV transmission in Zambia.
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2015; 18:19352.INTRODUCTION: To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in developing countries, new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy, throughout breastfeeding for 1 year and then cessation of breastfeeding (COB). The efficacy of this approach during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of this approach beyond six months is not well documented. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study of 279 HIV-positive mothers was started on zidovudine/3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir tablets between 14 and 30 weeks gestation and continued indefinitely thereafter. Women were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for six months, complementary feed for the next six months and then cease breastfeeding between 12 and 13 months. Infants were followed for transmission to 18 months and for survival to 24 months. Text message reminders and stipends for food and transport were utilized to encourage adherence and follow-up. RESULTS: Total MTCT was 9 of 219 live born infants (4.1%; confidence interval (CI) 2.2-7.6%). All breastfeeding transmissions that could be timed (5/5) occurred after six months of age. All mothers who transmitted after six months had a six-month plasma viral load >1,000 copies/ml (p<0.001). Poor adherence to cART as noted by missed dispensary visits was associated with transmission (p=0.04). Infant mortality was lower after six months of age than during the first six months of life (p=0.02). The cumulative rate of infant HIV infection or death at 18 months was 29/226 (12.8% 95 CI: 7.5-20.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal cART may limit MTCT of HIV to the UNAIDS target of <5% for eradication of paediatric HIV within the context of a clinical study, but poor adherence to cART and follow-up can limit the benefit. Continued breastfeeding can prevent the rise in infant mortality after six months seen in previous studies, which encouraged early COB.
Lancet. 2016 Jan 30; 387:416.If breastfeeding did not already exist, someone who invented it today would deserve a dual Nobel Prize in medicine and economics. For while “breast is best” for lifelong health, it is also excellent economics. Breastfeeding is a child's first inoculation against death, disease, and poverty, but also their most enduring investment in physical, cognitive, and social capacity. The evidence on breastfeeding leaves no doubt that it is a smart and cost-effective investment in a more prosperous future. Let’s ensure that every child -- and every nation -- can reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (Excerpts) Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Current Opinion In Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015 Dec; 27(6):451-9.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revisit the inception of the WHO's medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC), particularly its objectives and methodology, and to describe its impact over the last 20 years in the field of family planning. New recommendations are summarized from the newly released fifth edition of the guidance. RECENT FINDINGS: Fourteen topics, encompassing over 575 recommendations were reviewed for the MEC, fifth edition. New recommendations include: changes for combined hormonal contraceptive use among postpartum women; progestogen-only methods among breastfeeding women; and women at high risk for HIV infection, women living with HIV, and women living with HIV using antiretroviral therapy and hormonal contraception. New methods reviewed include subcutaneously administered depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, Sino-implant (II), ulipristal acetate, and progesterone-releasing vaginal ring. SUMMARY: Over the past 20 years, the MEC has become a remarkably influential document for practitioners and policy makers in family planning, as it provides up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations for contraceptive use for women with various medical conditions and medically relevant characteristics.
Individualizing the WHO HIV and infant feeding guidelines: optimal breastfeeding duration to maximize infant HIV-free survival.
AIDS. 2014 Jul; 28 Suppl 3:S287-99.OBJECTIVES: To determine how infant feeding recommendations can maximize HIV-free survival (HFS) among HIV-exposed, uninfected African infants, balancing risks of breast milk-associated HIV infection with setting-specific risks of illness and death associated with replacement feeding. DESIGN: Validated mathematical model of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, with published data from Africa. METHODS: We projected 24-month HFS using combinations of: maternal CD4, antiretroviral drug availability, and relative risk of mortality among replacement-fed compared to breastfed infants ('RR-RF', range 1.0-6.0). For each combination, we identified the 'optimal' breastfeeding duration (0-24 months) maximizing HFS. We compared HFS under an 'individualized' approach, based on the above parameters, to the WHO 'public health approach' (12 months breastfeeding for all HIV-infected women). RESULTS: Projected HFS was 65-93%. When the value of RR-RF is 1.0, replacement feeding from birth maximized HFS. At a commonly reported RR-RF value (2.0), optimal breastfeeding duration was 3-12 months, depending on maternal CD4 and antiretroviral drug availability. As the value of RR-RF increased, optimal breastfeeding duration increased. Compared to the public health approach, an individualized approach improved absolute HFS by less than 1% if RR-RF value was 2.0-4.0, by 3% if RR-RF value was 1.0 or 6.0, and by greater amounts if access to antiretroviral drugs was limited. CONCLUSION: Tailoring breastfeeding duration to maternal CD4, antiretroviral drug availability, and local replacement feeding safety can optimize HFS among HIV-exposed infants. An individualized approach leads to moderate gains in HFS, but only when mortality risks from replacement feeding are very low or very high, or antiretroviral drug availability is limited. The WHO public health approach is beneficial in most resource-limited settings.
Interpretation of World Health Organization growth charts for assessing infant malnutrition: a randomised controlled trial.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2014 Jan; 50(1):32-9.AIMS: The study aims to assess the effects of switching from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth references to World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards on health-care workers' decisions about malnutrition in infants aged <6 months. METHODS: We conducted a single blind randomised crossover trial involving 78 health-care workers (doctors, clinical officers, health service assistants) in Southern Malawi. Participants were offered hypothetical clinical scenarios with the same infant plotted on NCHS-based weight-for-age charts and again on WHO-based charts. Additional scenarios compared growth charts with a single final weight against charts with the same final weight plus a preceding growth trend. Reported (i) level of concern, (ii) referral suggestions and (iii) feeding advice were elicited with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Even after adjusting for health-care worker type and experience, using WHO rather than NCHS charts increased: (i) concern: aOR 4.4 (95% CI 2.4-8.1); (ii) odds of referral: aOR 5.1 (95% CI 2.4-10.8); and (iii) odds of feeding advice which would interrupt exclusive breastfeeding (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9). A preceding steady growth trend line did not affect concern, referral or feeding advice. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care workers take insufficient account of linear growth trend, clinical and feeding status when interpreting a low weight-for-age plot. Because more infants <6 months fall below low centile lines on WHO growth charts, their use may increase inappropriate referrals and risks undermining already low rates of exclusive breastfeeding. To avoid their being misinterpreted in this way, WHO charts need accompanying guidelines and training materials that recognise and address this possible adverse effect. (c) 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health (c) 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Time for new recommendations on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants in developing countries?
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2010 Dec 1; 88(12):949-50.Add to my documents.
How evidence based are public health policies for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV?
BMJ. 2013; 346:f3763.Add to my documents.
Hu Li Za Zhi the Journal of Nursing. 2013 Feb; 60(1):23-8.The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to promote breastfeeding in maternity facilities worldwide, has had a global impact on breastfeeding outcomes. However, further interventions are necessary before and after hospital discharge to meet the initiative's recommended 6-month targets. The Baby-Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI), a multifaceted program for community based breastfeeding promotion designed to complement BFHI, addresses this challenge. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the origin of BFCI and its current implementation status in several countries as a reference for effective BFCI promotion in Taiwan.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. 8 p. (FWC/MCA/12.1)The purpose of this Framework is to provide guidance to governments on key priority actions, related to infant and young child feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this guidance is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants and young children, while scalingup interventions to reduce HIV transmission. This Framework aims to build on the links and synergies between maternal and child health and investments, economic and human, in HIV prevention and control. This will bring additional benefits for all children, The Framework’s purpose and target audience not just for those who are HIV-exposed. The audience for this Framework includes national policy-makers, programme managers, regional advisory bodies, public health authorities, Country Coordinating Mechanisms, United Nations staff, professional bodies, nongovernmental organizations and other interested stakeholders, including the community. The current document is an update of the previous Framework, published in 2003, and has been developed in response to both evolving knowledge and requests for clarification from these key sectors. It is based on the latest HIV and infant feeding recommendations; the previous Framework no longer applies.
Journal of Human Lactation. 2012 Aug; 28(3):272-5.The BFHI provides a framework for addressing the major factors that have contributed to the erosion of breastfeeding, that is, maternity care practices that interfere with breastfeeding. Until practices improve, attempts to promote breastfeeding outside the health service will be impeded. Although inappropriate maternity care cannot be held solely responsible for low exclusive breastfeeding rates and short breastfeeding duration, appropriate care may be a prerequisite for raising them. In many industrialized countries, BFHI activities were slow to start. Over the past 10 years and as the evidence was becoming increasingly solid and the commitment of health workers and decision makers has become stronger, considerable efforts are being made in most industrialized countries to implement the BFHI. However, coordinators of the BFHI in industrialized countries face obstacles to successful implementation that appear unique to these countries. Problems reported include opposition from the health care establishment, lack of support from national authorities, and lack of awareness or acceptance of the need for the initiative among government departments, the health care system, and parents. It is worth highlighting these facts to enable the BFHI coordinators in these countries to make well-designed and targeted plans with achievable objectives. Strengthening and scaling up the BFHI is an undisputed way to reduce infant mortality and improve quality of care for mothers and children. The BFHI has had great impact on breastfeeding practices. Reflecting new infant feeding research findings and recommendations, the tools and courses used to change hospital practices in line with Baby-Friendly criteria are available and ready to be used and implemented. Governments should ensure that all personnel who are involved in health, nutrition, child survival, or maternal health are fully informed and energized to take advantage of an environment that is conducive to revitalizing the BFHI; incorporate the basic competencies for protection, promotion, and support of optimal infant and young child feeding, including the BFHI, into all health-worker curricula, whether facility- or community-based health workers; and recognize that the BFHI has a major role to play in child survival and more so in the context of HIV/AIDS. The World Health Organization and UNICEF strongly recommend using this new set of materials to ensure solid and full implementation of the BFHI global criteria and sustain progress already made. It is one way of improving child health and survival, and it is moving ahead to put the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding in place, thus moving steadily to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
Environment International. 2012 Oct 15; 47:17-22.There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g- 1 lw. Cypermethrin, -cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, -cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g- 1 lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels.
Impact of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on the health of breast-fed, HIV-exposed, HIV-negative infants in a resource-limited setting.
AIDS. 2011 Sep 10; 25(14):1797-9.WHO guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXP) in all HIV-exposed negative infants who are still breastfeeding. This is based on the evidence of efficacy in HIV-infected infants, but there is no evidence of benefit in HIV-negative, breast-fed infants. We assessed the impact of CTXP on diarrhoeal and respiratory morbidity in breast-fed, HIV-exposed negative infants in a community programme. CTXP for more than 60 days showed no consistent evidence of benefit for incidence of lower respiratory tract infection [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-1.26; P = 0.241] but an increased incidence of diarrhoea (IRR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.98-1.94; P = 0.065). The guidelines should be reconsidered by conducting a randomized control trial.