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  1. 1
    700024
    Peer Reviewed

    An assessment of the hazards and metabolic alterations attributed to oral contraceptives.

    Goldzieher JW

    Contraception. 1970 Jun; 1(6):409-445.

    This article reviews the validity of previously published material linking oral contraceptive usage to health hazards. The statistical methods involved in such studies are thoroughly examined, particularly those studies relating oral contraceptive usage to thromboembolic disease incidence. Problems inherent to the basic designs of such studies are discussed. Some relationship between thromembolic disease and oral contraceptive usage has been established. Studies on animals relating oral contraceptive usage with carcinogenesis are inconclusive due to the different metabolic rates obtained for different animals and different strains and the high dosage used to produce tumors. Review of the data relating oral contraceptives with alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, serum lipids, etc., show pure speculation of conclusion. Endrocrine effects persisting after discontinuation of oral contraceptives were rare; apparently both types of steroids play some part. It was suggested that most data on this subject is faulty and filled with fixed opinions which should be avoided.
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