Your search found 14 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Fighting the brain drain.

    McColl K

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Taking stock: Health worker shortages and the response to AIDS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. HIV / AIDS Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.05)

    In August 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a coordinated global effort to address a major and often overlooked barrier to preventing and treating HIV: the severe shortage of health workers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Called 'Treat, Train, Retain' (TTR), the plan is an important component of WHO's overall efforts to strengthen human resources for health and to promote comprehensive national strategies for human resource development across different disease programmes. It is also part of WHO's effort to promote universal access to HIV/AIDS services. TTR will strengthen and expand the health workforce by addressing both the causes and the effects of HIV and AIDS for health workers (Box). Meeting this global commitment will depend on strong and effective health-care systems that are capable of delivering services on a scale much larger than today's. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Africa and its diaspora: organizing and institutional issues.

    Akukwe C; Jammeh S; Foote M

    Chimera. 2004 Spring; 2(1):26-30.

    The need to organize a durable partnership between Africa and its people in the Diaspora is so obvious as to warrant little discussion. However, every partnership, even among blood relations, requires a clear raison d'etre. Why should a Brazilian-African become interested in South Africa's politics or economy? Why should a Nigerian unemployed university graduate believe that it is in his best interest to nurture a relationship with the Diaspora in the Caribbean? Why should a Senegalese-French citizen pay attention to the status of African-Americans in the United States? Why should a recent immigrant in the United States become involved in Africa-Diaspora partnership issues? Why should an inner city Diaspora family in the United States or Britain show interest in the political reforms in Kenya? These questions are neither rhetorical nor amenable to easy responses. At the core of the organizing issue in Africa-Diaspora partnership is the need to define a clear, unambiguous reason for this relationship. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    International migration, health and human rights.

    Nygren-Krug H

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003 Dec. 36 p. (Health and Human Rights Publication Series No. 4)

    This publication provides an overview of some of the key challenges for policy-makers in addressing the linkages between migration, health and human rights. It recognizes that there is limited data available and thus does not provide a full picture. It attempts to provide a useful platform to stimulate action towards addressing migration and health in a comprehensive and human rights-sensitive way. The first section explains why we are addressing the issue of migration and health and what is meant by doing this through a human rights framework. It then explores some of the terminology used and what is known about the magnitude of, and reasons for, migration. The second section links the reasons why people migrate with the health and human rights implications of moving on the populations left behind. It focuses attention on the issue of migrating health professionals by highlighting relevant trends, financial implications and ongoing trade negotiations. The third section considers the health implications for those on the move both in the context of public health as well as in relation to the health of the individual. It considers the various ways in which migration is managed, such as detaining and screening at the border. The last section, section four, considers the health and human rights issues of migrants once in the host country. It focuses particular attention on the most vulnerable categories of migrants and highlights some of the key challenges to promoting and protecting their health. (excerpt)
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  5. 5


    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 122-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Suriname's 1985 population of 375,000 is projected to grow to 628,000 by the year 2025. In 1983, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.6% were over the age of 60. 22.4% and 13.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.0 to 9.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.0 to 76.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 6.8 to 5.8, while infant mortality will decline from 36.0 to 9.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.6 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 28.8 to 15.4. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 45.7% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, spatial distribution, and high emigration are not. Suriname does not have an explicit population policy. While supporting the provision of contraceptives, health services, and primary health care for the population, the government does not intervene in population growth and fertility. It is, however, illegal to provide family planning services and information to adolescents. Efforts have also been taken to stem international emigration and shift spatial distribution toward the interior of the country. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  6. 6


    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 118-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sudan's 1985 population of 21,818,000 is projected to grow to 59,594,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 45.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.5% were over the age of 60. 33.9% and 6.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined by 28.6 to 17.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 47.8 to 63.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.3 to 7.7, while infant mortality will decline from 118.0 to 51.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.6 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.9 to 25.1. The 1978/79 contraceptive prevalence rate was 4.6, while the 1973 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 20.6% in 1985 to 45.5% overall by the year 2025. Population growth and fertility are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, spatial distribution, and significantly high immigration and emigration are not. Sudan does not have an explicit population policy. Official focus centers largely upon improving the standard of living through attention to infant and maternal mortality, maternal-child care, and providing primary health care and basic social services. The status of women and a modified spatial distribution are other priority concerns of the government. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Debt crisis, health and health services in Africa.

    Alubo SO

    Social Science and Medicine. 1990; 31(6):639-48.

    Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) has gone from "classical colonialism to neocolonial debt bondage." this article traces SSA's deterioration from a master-servant relationship during colonialism to the present-day "hybrid of decay and anarchy" from which people's health status and health services in the region are being asphyxiated by the debt crisis. The tragedy facing the continent is a carryover from colonialism SSA remains dependent on outside multinational forces that continue to determine her policies, extract her natural wealth, and minimally invest in the SSA region. This continued "cola-colonization" or external control of SSA has resulted in the "catastrophic" decline of most of SSA's social and economic institutions reflecting the collapse in the economies of the West. By the end of 1986, SSA owed US $200 billion or 45% of its GDP--growing to over US$600 million by the year 2000. By 1990 all SSA countries had to accept structural adjustment policies (SAP's) imposed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to monitor cuts in Government public spending, remove subsidies, trade liberalization and currency devaluation all leading to "tragic declines" in the standard of living. Health services in SSA also originated from colonialism and today remains dependent on the home government's. One of the major carry-over's is the urban/rural disparity; 70% of SSA's population is rural yet most health services and providers are in the urban areas contributing to higher infant mortality rates (2-5 times) in the rural areas. The debt crisis has compounded the magnitude of the lack of health services for the majority of people. Shortages exist for all essential drugs and equipment while social services and institutions have deteriorated, aggravating the already low health status in the region. SAP's have increased starvation, epidemics and the brain drain. Perhaps there is a need for a "Marshall Plan" to help SSA out of its underdevelopment.
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  8. 8

    The brain drain issue in international negotiations.

    d'Oliveira e Sousa J

    In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. Paris, France, OECD Publications, 1989. 197-212. (Development Centre Seminars)

    During the last 20 years the brain drain issue has figured prominently in international negotiations on development questions. Because of its complexity and the implications of control on the freedom of individuals, international agreement regarding appropriate action to mitigate negative consequences for developing countries has been difficult to achieve. In particular, serious reservations have been expressed by some developed countries concerning redistribution schemes such as the International Labour Compensatory Facility. However, systematic consideration of the subject in different fora has permitted linkages between the brain drain and such related issues as population, employment, human rights, science and technology, and health. Complex technical, conceptual, and methodological aspects of the phenomenon, including the tools for its measurement, have also been explored. Intensive multilateral negotiations have led to better understanding and hence a more balanced and integrated approach to development aspects of brain drain. The great challenge is to find appropriate solutions for mitigating the negative effects of brain drain for developing countries which take into account the interests of all parties involved as well as the basic right of human beings to move freely.
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  9. 9

    Jordan: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. viii, 56 p. (Report No. 83)

    The 3rd Needs Assessment Mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities visited JOrdan in 1985. While Jordan has a high per capita gross national product of Us $1640, its demographic characteristics are those of a less developed country. It has a high crude birth rate of 44.9 (1980-1985), a high annual growth rate of 3.66 (1980-1985), and a young population, 49.4% of whom are under the age of 15. The government has not adopted an official population policy. The government is particularly concerned about the large numbers of skilled and professional workers leaving Jordan to work abroad, and the large inflow of semi-skilled and manual workers. The MIssion recommends that the National Population Commission, which could provide the framework for an integrated approach to population and development, should undertake the formulation of comprehensive population policies, ensuring that population issues are integrated into national development planning. The MIssion recommends that a Human Resources Section be established within the Ministry of Planning by expanding the present manpower section. The MIssion recommends upgrading demographic data collection through cooperation between the Department of Statistics and the Civil Status Department by making full use of equipment and facilities, comparing data sets, using census and population register data fully, and using census data as a standard for evaluating other data sets. The Mission recommends that the government's expansion of health services within a primary health care framework should be supported and assistance provided in the establishment of a primary health care training and demonstration center. The Mission recommends that greater efforts should be made to include population education in the school curriculum. There is a need for data and information on women.
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  10. 10

    Measures to facilitate the reintegration of returning migrant workers: international experiences.

    Lohrmann R

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):187-97.

    Bilateral and multilateral measures implemented to assist migrants who return to their country of origin have been designed to respond to a number of different but specific situations. 2 bilateral agreements are briefly described: 1) an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Turkey signed in the early 1970s, and 2) an agreement between France and Algeria signed in 1980. 3 different types of multilateral activities are described: 1) the operation of the so-called Return of Talent program by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, 2) the Transfer of KNow-how Through Expatriate Nationals program of the UN Development Programme, and 3) the elaboration of a model machinery on return migration by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While the 1st 2 activities are operational programs, by which annually between 1000-2000 professionals are assisted in their permanent return to or temporary sojourn in their developing countries of origin, with the financial support of both the developed and the developing countries concerned, the 3rd initiative is a conceptual effort aimed at assisting governments to implement policy measures designed to make return migration commensurate with national development goals. 3 recent proposals include 1) the proposal for an international labor compensatory facility, 2) an international fund for vocational training, and 3) an international fund for manpower resources. A common factor shared by all these programs is that they have all involved on 1 side industrial receiving countries which feel themselves obliged to observe a number of principles guaranteed by law and which govern employment conditions and working relations. The reintegration measures implemented or proposed in cooperation with them have been adopted in full consideration of the prevailing standards of these countries, as different as they may be from 1 country to another. A common consideration has been that the returning migrant should reintegrate in his country of origin as far as possible in conditions allowing the returnee to attain self-sufficiency and social security coverage. However, this underlying context does not necessarily prevail in all world regions where different forms of labor migration take place. Therefore the measures experienced in the relationship of specific countries cannot be easily copied for implementation in other countries. Multilateral measures benefited a rather limited number of individuals only, in many instances skilled and highly skilled migrants.
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  11. 11

    Using migration to enhance economic development in the Caribbean: three sets of proposals.

    Pastor RA; Rogers R

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
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  12. 12

    Migration and development in Hispaniola.

    Preeg EH

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
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  13. 13

    International migration in Asia and the Pacific: trends, problems, and recommendations.

    Alberto Diaz C

    INITIATIVES IN POPULATION. 1986; 8(2):23-30.

    Like other parts of the world, the Asia and Pacific region has experienced mass movements of the population within and across countries. This report presents the issues and problems discussed, and the recommendations given at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific, held in 1984 in Manila. The 9 issues discussed include: 1) available data on international migration are often inconsistent, incomplete, and inadequate for a thorough analysis of the migration situation; 2) the conventional economic theory of migration, and the modern view are different, but related; 3) are internal and international migration 2 distinct phenomena, or are they simply opposite ends of a continuum ranging from short-distance moves within a country to long-distance moves across national boundaries?; 4) permanent migration from Asia and the Pacific to the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand has risen sharply over the the past few years; 5) international migration could have considerable effects on the size, composition, growth, and structure of the populations of both sending and receiving countries; 6) temporary labor migration to the Middle East increased rapidly in the recent past; 7) temporary labor migration has benefits and costs to the home country and to the returning workers and their families; 8) refugee movements within and from Asia have had significant repercussions, not only in the lives of the migrants themselves, but also in the national policies and social structures of the asylum countries; and 9) international migration, if properly controlled and organized, could work for the benefit of every country involved.
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  14. 14

    Migration, population distribution and development.


    [Unpublished] 1983 Jan 17. 14 p. (IESA/P/ICP.1984/EG.II/18; 83-01025)

    Observations on factors influencing migration and measures to reduce "brain drain" are based on studies conducted by Unesco, relating in particular to the Caribbean Region and to Eastern Africa. In many countries the migration of highly educated individuals increased during the 1970s. There is evidence, for example, that this holds true for the Caribbean Region as a whole. The flows of unskilled labor in search of more remunerative work which characterized migration from that region during the 1950s and early 1960s was associated with inflows of remittances. It is of concern to Caribbean countries that the departure of highly educated professionals and high level managerial and technical personnel is associated with an outflow of capital. Nonreturn of people studying abroad continues to be an important form of migration of talent, although emigration of professionals already holding jobs in their own countries appears to be assuming relatively greater proportions. A sample survey conducted among Jamaicans suggested that approximately 50% of Jamaican students studying overseas intended to remain abroad, and as the period of domicile away from home increases, so does the likelihood of remaining away. Specialization in certain highly technical subjects cannot always be usefully applied by students at home. Attempts are being made by receiving countries to mitigate problems of "brain drain." For example, the Federal Republic of Germany organizes reintegration seminars to provide foreign students with current information on conditions in their own countries including employment possibilities and help is given to supplement students' efforts to seek jobs at home. Emphasis is being given by the UK, Netherlands, and Sweden to short, specialized courses with direct relevance to the development problems of concern to participants. Industrialized countries are cooperating with developing countries in defining training needs and evaluating the results of training received abroad in terms of subsequent employment, job performance, and skill application. Unesco has undertaken a number of actions to reduce the loss to developing countries of skilled manpower. In addition to those included in the annex, short visits are being organized of expatriate scientists to their countries of origin to help strengthen national research institutions. Programs of regional exchanges among advanced research personnel and university professors are also being explored, and it is planned to extend the analysis of problems of migration of skilled persons in countries of origin of Unesco sponsored fellows.
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