Your search found 47 Results

  1. 1

    Evaluation of nutritional status of children using the WHO's Standards for head circumference.

    Muhammad A; Muhammad A; Altaf S; Rana RA

    Rawal Medical Journal. 2018 Jul-Sep; 43(3):462-466.

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of the Pakistani children aged 2-5 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1474 children, aged 2-5 years, was undertaken from Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan from March-June, 2016. The head circumference (HdC) measurement of each subject was taken. Following the WHO age and sex-specific cut-off points, nutritional status of children was determined. Results: The mean age and HdC of the total subjects was4.15±0.87 years and 48.51 ±1.79 cm, respectively. Mean HdC increased with advancement of age in both boys and girls. Moderate under-nutrition was more prevalent than severe under-nutrition in both genders. Based on the HdC, the overall (age and sex combined) percentage of under-nourishment was 16.2 while these percentages were 16.4 and 15.8 for girls and boys, respectively. Conclusion: The study showed that a considerable number of Pakistani children were undernourished. A high rate of under-nutrition was observed in girls than in boys.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Panjwani A; Heidkamp R

    Journal of Nutrition. 2017 Nov; 147(11):2169S-2178S.

    Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children <5 y old. Less is known about the potential of these interventions to prevent wasting.Objective: The aim of this article was to review and synthesize the current literature for the impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention.Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08).Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on both stunting and wasting. (c) 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight.

    Kiserud T; Piaggio G; Carroli G; Widmer M; Carvalho J; Neerup Jensen L; Giordano D; Cecatti JG; Abdel Aleem H; Talegawkar SA; Benachi A; Diemert A; Tshefu Kitoto A; Thinkhamrop J; Lumbiganon P; Tabor A; Kriplani A; Gonzalez Perez R; Hecher K; Hanson MA; Gulmezoglu AM; Platt LD

    PloS Medicine. 2017 Jan; 14(1):e1002220.

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown-rump length measured at 8-13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25-31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157-168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55-68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487-2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38-40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8-16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980-3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound measurements were scrutinized for outliers and leverage points, and those measurements taken at 14 to 40 wk were selected for analysis. A total of 7,924 sets of ultrasound measurements were analyzed by quantile regression to establish longitudinal reference intervals for fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, humerus length, abdominal circumference, femur length and its ratio with head circumference and with biparietal diameter, and EFW. There was asymmetric distribution of growth of EFW: a slightly wider distribution among the lower percentiles during early weeks shifted to a notably expanded distribution of the higher percentiles in late pregnancy. Male fetuses were larger than female fetuses as measured by EFW, but the disparity was smaller in the lower quantiles of the distribution (3.5%) and larger in the upper quantiles (4.5%). Maternal age and maternal height were associated with a positive effect on EFW, particularly in the lower tail of the distribution, of the order of 2% to 3% for each additional 10 y of age of the mother and 1% to 2% for each additional 10 cm of height. Maternal weight was associated with a small positive effect on EFW, especially in the higher tail of the distribution, of the order of 1.0% to 1.5% for each additional 10 kg of bodyweight of the mother. Parous women had heavier fetuses than nulliparous women, with the disparity being greater in the lower quantiles of the distribution, of the order of 1% to 1.5%, and diminishing in the upper quantiles. There were also significant differences in growth of EFW between countries. In spite of the multinational nature of the study, sample size is a limiting factor for generalization of the charts. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides WHO fetal growth charts for EFW and common ultrasound biometric measurements, and shows variation between different parts of the world.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Dietary management of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Gaffey MF; Wazny K; Bassani DG; Bhutta ZA

    BMC Public Health. 2013; 13 Suppl 3:S17.

    BACKGROUND: Current WHO guidelines on the management and treatment of diarrhea in children strongly recommend continued feeding alongside the administration of oral rehydration solution and zinc therapy, but there remains some debate regarding the optimal diet or dietary ingredients for feeding children with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search for all published randomized controlled trials evaluating food-based interventions among children under five years old with diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries. We classified 29 eligible studies into one or more comparisons: reduced versus regular lactose liquid feeds, lactose-free versus lactose-containing liquid feeds, lactose-free liquid feeds versus lactose-containing mixed diets, and commercial/specialized ingredients versus home-available ingredients. We used all available outcome data to conduct random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the average effect of each intervention on diarrhea duration, stool output, weight gain and treatment failure risk for studies on acute and persistent diarrhea separately. RESULTS: Evidence of low-to-moderate quality suggests that among children with acute diarrhea, diluting or fermenting lactose-containing liquid feeds does not affect any outcome when compared with an ordinary lactose-containing liquid feeds. In contrast, moderate quality evidence suggests that lactose-free liquid feeds reduce duration and the risk of treatment failure compared to lactose-containing liquid feeds in acute diarrhea. Only limited evidence of low quality was available to assess either of these two approaches in persistent diarrhea, or to assess lactose-free liquid feeds compared to lactose-containing mixed diets in either acute or persistent diarrhea. For commercially prepared or specialized ingredients compared to home-available ingredients, we found low-to-moderate quality evidence of no effect on any outcome in either acute or persistent diarrhea, though when we restricted these analyses to studies where both intervention and control diets were lactose-free, weight gain in children with acute diarrhea was shown to be greater among those fed with a home-available diet. CONCLUSIONS: Among children in low- and middle-income countries, where the dual burden of diarrhea and malnutrition is greatest and where access to proprietary formulas and specialized ingredients is limited, the use of locally available age-appropriate foods should be promoted for the majority of acute diarrhea cases. Lactose intolerance is an important complication in some cases, but even among those children for whom lactose avoidance may be necessary, nutritionally complete diets comprised of locally available ingredients can be used at least as effectively as commercial preparations or specialized ingredients. These same conclusions may also apply to the dietary management of children with persistent diarrhea, but the evidence remains limited.
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  5. 5

    Growth pattern of exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants in Umuahia Urban, Nigeria.

    Ukegbu PO; Uwaegbute AC

    Journal of Community Nutrition & Health. 2013; 2(1):68-75.

    Objective: This was a prospective comparative study carried out from April 2011 to February 2012 to assess the growth pattern of exclusively breast fed (EBF) and non-exclusively breast fed infants (NEBF) in the first six months of life. Methods: A total of 213 lactating mothers and their neonates (less than 7 days) weighing 2.5kg were consecutively recruited into the study and followed up at 6,14 and 24 weeks, Infants were classified into EBF and NEBF groups based on their current feeding pattern during the follow up. Anthropometric measurements of weight and length were taken and compared with WHO reference curves. Data analysis was carried out using frequencies, percentages, means (SD) and t-test. Results: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding declined from 82.5% at delivery to 23% at the end of 24 weeks. The NEBF infants were heavier and longer at birth (P>0.05). The EBF Infants had higher weight (28 vs 22 g/day) and length gain of (0.77 Vs 0.70 cm/week) from 0 to 14 weeks than their NEBF counterpart (p>0.05). Despite a decline in weight gain of EBF infants after the 14 week, they retained the higher mean weight achieved earlier. Average cumulative weight and length gain of 3.71 kg Vs 3.31 kg and 15.33 cm vs 14.56 cm were recorded for EBF and NEBF infants, respectively during the 24 weeks follow up. The mean weight and length of the EBF infants was comparable to the World Health organization (WHO) reference curve than for the NEBF infants. Conclusion: This study has shown that exclusive breastfeeding supported adequate growth in infants studied during the first six months of life.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators and their associations with child anthropometry: a synthesis of recent findings.

    Jones AD; Ickes SB; Smith LE; Mbuya MN; Chasekwa B; Heidkamp RA; Menon P; Zongrone AA; Stoltzful RJ

    Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2014 Jan; 10(1):1-17.

    As the World Health Organization (WHO) infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators are increasingly adopted, a comparison of country-specific analyses of the indicators’ associations with child growth is needed to examine the consistency of these relationships across contexts and to assess the strengths and potential limitations of the indicators. This study aims to determine cross-country patterns of associations of each of these indicators with child stunting, wasting, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Eight studies using recent Demographic and Health Surveys data from a total of nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa (nine), Asia (three) and the Caribbean (one) were identified. The WHO indicators showed mixed associations with child anthropometric indicators across countries. Breastfeeding indicators demonstrated negative associations with HAZ, while indicators of diet diversity and overall diet quality were positively associated with HAZ in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India and Zambia (P < 0.05).These same complementary feeding indicators did not show consistent relationships with child stunting. Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months of age was associated with greater WHZ in Bangladesh and Zambia (P < 0.05), although CF indicators did not show strong associations with WHZ or wasting. The lack of sensitivity and specificity of many of the IYCF indicators may contribute to the inconsistent associations observed.The WHO indicators are clearly valuable tools for broadly assessing the quality of child diets and for monitoring population trends in IYCF practices over time. However, additional measures of dietary quality and quantity may be necessary to understand how specific IYCF behaviours relate to child growth faltering.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    World Health Organization (WHO) infant and young child feeding indicators: associations with growth measures in 14 low-income countries.

    Marriott BP; White A; Hadden L; Davies JC; Wallingford JC

    Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2012 Jul; 8(3):354-70.

    Eight World Health Organization (WHO) feeding indicators (FIs) and Demographic and Health Survey data for children <24 months were used to assess the relationship of child feeding with stunting and underweight in 14 poor countries. Also assessed were the correlations of FI with country gross national income (GNI). Prevalence of underweight and stunting increased with age and >/= 50% of 12-23-month children were stunted. About 66% of babies received solids by sixth to eighth months; 91% were still breastfeeding through months 12-15. Approximately half of the children were fed with complementary foods at the recommended daily frequency, but <25% met food diversity recommendations. GNI was negatively correlated with a breastfeeding index (P < 0.01) but not with other age-appropriate FI. Regression modelling indicated a significant association between early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in risk of underweight (P < 0.05), but a higher risk of underweight for continued breastfeeding at 12-15 months (P < 0.001). For infants 6-8 months, consumption of solid foods was associated with significantly lower risk of both stunting and underweight (P < 0.001), as was meeting WHO guidance for minimum acceptable diet, iron-rich foods (IRF) and dietary diversity (P < 0.001); desired feeding frequency was only associated with lower risk of underweight (P < 0.05). Timely solid food introduction, dietary diversity and IRF were associated with reduced probability of underweight and stunting that was further associated with maternal education (P < 0.001). These results identify FI associated with growth and reinforce maternal education as a variable to reduce risk of underweight and stunting in poor countries. (c) 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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  8. 8

    [Analysis of children's nutritional status based on WHO children growth standard in China]

    Wang Y; Chen C; He W

    Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2007 Mar; 36(2):203-6.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare children's growth patterns and estimates of malnutrition using the WHO standards versus the NCHS reference in China. METHODS: Data originated from China children nutrition surveillance in 2005, Z-scores and prevalence of malnutrition were compared between standards. RESULTS: There was substantial difference in Z-scores between standards in rural (P < 0.0001). According to the WHO standards, prevalence of underweight in rural was lower than that of underweight based on the NCHS reference (6.1% . vs. 8.6%, P < 0.0001). Except for children under 6 months, all age groups underweight rates were lower according to the WHO standards. Prevalence of stunting in rural was higher based on the WHO standards (16.3% . vs. 13.0%, P < 0.0001), prevalences of stunting under 6 months were 2.1 times of that based on NCHS reference. As for wasting, there were no differences between standards, but wasting was substantially higher during the first half of infancy. Overweight rates based on the WHO standards were higher than those based on NCHS reference in urban (6.7% . vs. 5.4%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In comparison with NCHS reference, population estimates of malnutrition would vary by age, growth indicator based on WHO standards. The WHO standards could provide a better tool to monitor the rapid and changing rate of growth in early infancy, further analysis on existing data was needed.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO growth standards: a secondary data analysis.

    Kerac M; Blencowe H; Grijalva-Eternod C; McGrath M; Shoham J; Cole TJ; Seal A

    Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2011 Feb 2; 96(11):1008-1013.

    Objectives: To determine wasting prevalence among infants aged under 6 months and describe the effects of new case definitions based on WHO growth standards. Design: Secondary data analysis of demographic and health survey datasets. Setting: 21 developing countries. Population: 15 534 infants under 6 months and 147 694 children aged 6 to under 60 months (median 5072 individuals/country, range 1710-45 398). Wasting was defined as weight-for-height z-score <-2, moderate wasting as -3 to <-2 z-scores, severe wasting as z-score <-3. Results: Using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth references, the nationwide prevalence of wasting in infant under-6-month ranges from 1.1% to 15% (median 3.7%, IQR 1.8-6.5%; ~3 million wasted infants <6 months worldwide). Prevalence is more than doubled using WHO standards: 2.0-34% (median 15%, IQR 6.2-17%; ~8.5 million wasted infants <6 months worldwide). Prevalence differences using WHO standards are more marked for infants under 6 months than children, with the greatest increase being for severe wasting (indicated by a regression line slope of 3.5 for infants <6 months vs 1.7 for children). Moderate infant-6-month wasting is also greater using WHO, whereas moderate child wasting is 0.9 times the NCHS prevalence. Conclusions: Whether defined by NCHS references or WHO standards, wasting among infants under 6 months is prevalent in many of the developing countries examined in this study. Use of WHO standards to define wasting results in a greater disease burden, particularly for severe wasting. Policy makers, programme managers and clinicians in child health and nutrition programmes should consider resource and risk/benefit implications of changing case definitions.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Comparison of previous and present World Health Organization clinical staging criteria in HIV-infected Malawian children.

    Poerksen G; Nyirenda M; Pollock L; Blencowe H; Tembo P; Chesshyre E; Jefferis O; Kenny J; Moons P; Bunn J; Molyneux E

    AIDS. 2009 Sep 10; 23(14):1913-6.

    In many settings, HIV infected children are looked after with limited access to CD4 cell count or viral load. The decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) is made clinically, based on the WHO paediatric staging criteria, which were revised in 2006. Results of using new and old criteria were compared. Of 694 children, 626 (90.2%) fulfilled criteria to start ART when applying the new WHO staging guidelines, whereas 330 (47.6%) children were eligible for ART when using the old WHO criteria. This signifies a marked rise in the number of paediatric patients qualifying for ART on clinical grounds.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Pilot testing of WHO child growth standards in Chandigarh: implications for India's child health programmes.

    Prinja S; Thakur JS; Bhatia SS

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009 Feb; 87(2):116-22.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of underweight as calculated from Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) growth curves (based on the Harvard scale) and the new WHO Child Growth Standards. METHODS: We randomly selected 806 children under 6 years of age from 45 primary anganwadi (childcare) centres in Chandigarh, Punjab, India, that were chosen through multistage stratified random sampling. Children were weighed, and their weight for age was calculated using IAP curves and WHO growth references. Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software (beta version, 17 February 2006). The chi2 test was used to determine statistical significance at the 0.05 significance level. FINDINGS: The prevalence of underweight (Z score less than -2) in the first 6 months of life was nearly 1.6 times higher when calculated in accordance with the new WHO standards rather than IAP growth curves. For all ages combined, the estimated prevalence of underweight was 1.4 times higher when IAP standards instead of the new WHO standards were used. Similarly, the prevalence of underweight in both sexes combined was 14.5% higher when IAP standards rather than the new WHO growth standards were applied (P < 0.001). By contrast, severe malnutrition estimated for both sexes were 3.8 times higher when the new WHO standards were used in place of IAP standards (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The new WHO growth standards will project a lower prevalence of overall underweight children and provide superior growth tracking than IAP standards, especially in the first 6 months of life and among severely malnourished children.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Appropriate infant feeding practices result in better growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Saha KK; Frongillo EA; Alam DS; Arifeen SE; Persson LA; Rasmussen KM

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008 Jun; 87(6):1852-1859.

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommend a global strategy for feeding infants and young children for proper nutrition and health. We evaluated the effects of following current infant feeding recommendations on the growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. The prospective cohort study involved 1343 infants with monthly measurements on infant feeding practices (IFPs) and anthropometry at 17 occasions from birth to 24 mo of age to assess the main outcomes of weight, length, anthropometric indexes, and undernutrition. We created infant feeding scales relative to the infant feeding recommendations and modeled growth trajectories with the use of multilevel models for change. Mean (+or- SD) birth weight was 2697 +or- 401 g; 30%weighed less than 2500 g. Mean body weight at 12 and 24 mo was 7.9 +or- 1.1 kg and 9.7 +or- 1.3 kg, respectively. More appropriate IFPs were associated (P less than 0.001) with greater gain in weight andlength during infancy. Prior IFPs were also positively associated (P less than 0.005) with subsequent growth in weight during infancy. Children who were in the 75th percentile of the infant feeding scales had greater (P less than 0.05) attained weight and weight-for-age z scores and lower proportions of underweight compared with children who were in the 25th percentile of these scales. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive effects of following the current infant feeding recommendations on growth of infants and young children. Intervention programs should strive to improve conditions for enhancing current infant feeding recommendations, particularly in low-income countries. (author's)
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  13. 13

    Newly developed WHO growth standards: Implications for demographic surveys and child health programs.

    Deshmukh PR; Dongre AR; Gupta SS; Garg BS

    Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2007 Nov; 74(11):987-990.

    The objective was to compare estimates of undernutrition based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards ('WHO standards') and the National Center for Health Statistics NCHS/ WHO international growth reference ('NCHS reference'), and discuss implications for child health programs and reporting of prevalence of underweight in demographic surveys. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 20 Anganwadi centers under Primary Health Centre, Anji. Total of 1491 under-six year children attending the Anganwadi centers were studied for nutritional status. Nutritional status was analyzed by NCHS standards by using EPI_INFO 6.04 software package and also by newly introduced WHO Child Growth Standards by Anthro 2005 software package. Chi-square test was used to compare the results. According to WHO standards, the prevalence of underweight and severe underweight for children 0-6 year was 47.4% and 16.9% respectively. By NCHS reference, the overall prevalence of underweight and severe underweight for children 0-6 years was 53% and 15% respectively. The prevalence of underweight as assessed by WHO standards was significantly lower when compared with the assessment based on NCHS reference (p<0.01). But, WHO standards gave higher prevalence of severe underweight than NCHS reference though the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). In the light of newly developed WHO Child growth standards, all the nutrition-related indicators in demographic surveys like NFHS should now be derived using the WHO standards. There is need to reanalyze NFHS-I and NFHS-II data using WHO standards and findings should be made available so that it becomes comparable and trends over the years can be studied. (author's)
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.

    de Onis M; Onyango AW; Borghi E; Siyam A; Nishida C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Sep; 85(9):660-667.

    The objective was to construct growth curves for school-aged children and adolescents that accord with the WHO Child Growth Standards for preschool children and the body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for adults. Data from the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (1-24 years) were merged with data from the under-fives growth standards' cross-sectional sample (18-71 months) to smooth the transition between the two samples. State-of-the-art statistical methods used to construct the WHO Child Growth Standards (0-5 years), i.e. the Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method with appropriate diagnostic tools for the selection of best models, were applied to this combined sample. The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at 5 years for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age. For BMI-for-age across all centiles the magnitude of the difference between the two curves at age 5 years is mostly 0.0 kg/m/2 to 0.1 kg/m/2. At 19 years, the new BMI values at +1 standard deviation (SD) are 25.4 kg/m/2 for boys and 25.0 kg/m/2 for girls. These values are equivalent to the overweight cut-off for adults (>/= 25.0 kg/m/2). Similarly, the +2 SD value (29.7 kg/m/2 for both sexes) compares closely with the cut-off for obesity (>/= 30.0 kg/m/2). The new curves are closely aligned with the WHO Child Growth Standards at 5 years, and the recommended adult cut-offs for overweight and obesity at 19 years. They fill the gap in growth curves and provide an appropriate reference for the 5 to 19 years age group. (author's)
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Field-testing the WHO Child Growth Standards in four countries.

    Onyango AW; de Onis M; Caroli M; Shah U; Sguassero Y

    Journal of Nutrition. 2007 Jan; 137(1):149-152.

    In April 2006 the WHO released a set of growth standards for children from birth to the age of 5 y. Prior to their release, the standards were field-tested in 4 countries. The main objective was to compare children's length/height-for-age and weight-for-length/height based on the new standards with clinician assessments of the same children. The study sampled children < 5-y-old attending well-child clinics in 2 affluent populations (Argentina and Italy) and 2 less-affluent ones (Maldives and Pakistan). Length/height and weight were measured by doctors and epidemiologists who also recorded a clinical assessment of each child's length/height in relation to age and weight relative to length/height. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were generated based on the WHO standards. As expected, Pakistan and the Maldives had higher rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight than Italy and Argentina, and the reverse was true for overweight and obesity. Where stunting was prevalent, the children classified as short were a mean < -22 SD for height-for-age. In all sites, the children classified as thin were indeed wasted < -22 SD for weight-for-height) and a positive association in trend was evident between weight-for-height and the line-up of groups from thin to obese. The overall concordance between clinical assessments and the WHO standards-based indicators attested to the clinical soundness of the standards. (author's)
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Carob bean juice: a powerful adjunct to oral rehydration solution treatment in diarrheoa.

    Aksit S; Caglayan S; Cukan R; Yaprak I

    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 1998 Apr; 12(2):176-181.

    In children, the treatment of acute diarrhoea with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard oral rehydration solution (ORS) provides effective rehydration but does not reduce the severity of diarrhoea. In community practice, carob bean has been used to treat diarrhoeal diseases in Anatolia since ancient times. In order to test clinical antidiarrhoeal effects of carob bean juice (CBJ), 80 children, aged 4±48 months, who were admitted to SSK Tepecik Teaching Hospital with acute diarrhoea and mild or moderate dehydration, were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either standard WHO ORS alone or a combination of standard WHO ORS and CBJ. Three patients were excluded from the study because of excessive vomiting. In the children receiving ORS + CBJ the duration of diarrhoea was shortened by 45%, stool output was reduced by 44% and ORS requirement was decreased by 38% compared with children receiving ORS alone. Weight gain was similar in the two groups at 24 h after the initiation of the study. Hypernatraemia was detected in three patients in the ORS group but in none of those in the ORS + CBJ group. The use of CBJ in combination with ORS did not lead to any clinical metabolic problem. We therefore conclude that CBJ may have a role in the treatment of children's diarrhoea after it has been technologically processed, and that further studies would be justified. (author's)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) tablets (six-dose regimen) in African infants and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Falade C; Makanga M; Premji Z; Ortmann CE; Stockmeyer M

    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2005; 99:459-467.

    Approximately one million children die from malaria each year. A recently approved artemisinin-based tablet, Coartem (co-artemether), comprising artemether 120 mg plus lumefantrine 20 mg, given in four doses, provides effective antimalarial treatment for children in many sub-Saharan countries. However, this regimen is considered insufficient for non-immune infants and in areas where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum predominates. This open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of co-artemether administered to 310 African children weighing 5—25 kg, with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Six doses of coartemether were given over 3 days, with follow-up at 7, 14 and 28 days. Treatment rapidly cleared parasitemia and fever. The overall 28-day cure rate was 86.5%, and 93.9% when corrected by PCR for reinfection. Cure rates at 7 and 14 days exceeded 97.0% (uncorrected) and, on day 28, were similar in infants (5 -<10 kg) previously exposed to malaria infection (partially immune: 88.6% uncorrected; 93.3% corrected), and in those who were non-immune (82.5% uncorrected; 95.0% corrected). Adverse events were mostly mild. There was no electrocardiographic evidence of cardiotoxicity. The co-artemether six-dose regimen, treating acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children, achieved rapid parasite clearance and a high cure rate. Treatment was generally safe and well tolerated. (author's)
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Methodology for estimating regional and global trends of child malnutrition.

    de Onis M; Blössner M; Borghi E; Morris R; Frongillo EA

    International Journal of Epidemiology. 2004; 33(6):1260-1270.

    Child malnutrition is an important indicator for monitoring progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). This paper describes the methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to derive global and regional trends of child stunting and underweight, and reports trends in prevalence and numbers affected for 1990–2005. National prevalence data from 139 countries were extracted from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. A total of 419 and 388 survey data points were available for underweight and stunting, respectively. To estimate trends we used linear mixed-effect models allowing for random effects at country level and for heterogeneous covariance structures. One model was fitted for each United Nation’s region using the logit transform of the prevalence and results back-transformed to the original scale. Best models were selected based on explicit statistical and graphical criteria. During 1990–2000 global stunting and underweight prevalences declined from 34% to 27% and 27% to 22%, respectively. Large declines were achieved in Eastern and South-eastern Asia, while South-central Asia continued to suffer very high levels of malnutrition. Substantial improvements were also made in Latin America and the Caribbean, whereas in Africa numbers of stunted and underweight children increased from 40 to 45, and 25 to 31 million, respectively. Linear mixed-effect models made best use of all available information. Trends are uneven across regions, with some showing a need for more concerted and efficient interventions to meet the MDG of reducing levels of child malnutrition by half between 1990 and 2015. (author's)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    The WHO dose pole for the administration of praziquantel is also accurate in non-African populations.

    Montresor A; Odermatt P; Muth S; Iwata F; Raja'a YA

    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2005; 99:78-81.

    In 2001, WHO developed a pole for the administration of praziquantel without the use of weighing scales, with encouraging results in African populations. In the present study, the pole was tested on height/weight data from 9354 individuals from 11 non-African countries. In more than 98% of the individuals (95% CI 97.8—98.4) the pole estimated an acceptable dosage (30—60 mg/kg), a performance statistically similar to that observed in African populations. Reproducing the present pole in the form of a strip of paper and including it in each container of praziquantel would greatly facilitate the administration of the drug in large-scale interventions. (author's)
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  20. 20

    Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1995. [463] p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 854)

    The Expert Committee's report is intended to provide a framework and contexts for present and future uses and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical aspects of this framework are presented in section 2, and specific applications of anthropometry appropriate for a particular physical status or for particular age groups are dealt with in subsequent sections. For some groups, such as adolescents and the elderly, there has been little previous research, and the report provides a basis and impetus for future studies. For other age groups, such as infants and children, the report provides a re-evaluation in the light of current research, and allows for an integrated approach to anthropometry throughout life. It is intended to furnish scientists, clinicians, and public health professionals worldwide with an authoritative review, reference data, and recommendations for the use and interpretation of anthropometry that should be appropriate in many settings. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Estimates of global prevalence of childhood underweight in 1990 and 2015.

    de Onis M; Biössner M; Borghi E; Frongillo EA; Morris R

    JAMA. 2004 Jun 2; 291(21):2600-2606.

    One key target of the United Nations Millennium Development goals is to reduce the prevalence of underweight among children younger than 5 years by half between 1990 and 2015. The objective was to estimate trends in childhood underweight by geographic regions of the world. Time series study of prevalence of underweight, defined as weight 2 SDs below the mean weight for age of the National Center for Health Statistics and World Health Organization (WHO) reference population. National prevalence rates derived from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, which includes data on approximately 31 million children younger than 5 years who participated in 419 national nutritional surveys in 139 countries from 1965 through 2002. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate prevalence rates and numbers of underweight children by region in 1990 and 2015 and to calculate the changes (ie, increase or decrease) to these values between 1990 and 2015. Worldwide, underweight prevalence was projected to decline from 26.5% in 1990 to 17.6% in 2015, a change of –34% (95% confidence interval [CI], –43% to –23%). In developed countries, the prevalence was estimated to decrease from 1.6% to 0.9%, a change of –41% (95% CI, –92% to 343%). In developing regions, the prevalence was forecasted to decline from 30.2% to 19.3%, a change of –36% (95% CI, –45% to –26%). In Africa, the prevalence of underweight was forecasted to increase from 24.0% to 26.8%, a change of 12% (95% CI, 8%- 16%). In Asia, the prevalence was estimated to decrease from 35.1% to 18.5%, a change of –47% (95% CI, –58% –34%). Worldwide, the number of underweight children was projected to decline from 163.8 million in 1990 to 113.4 million in 2015, a change of –31% (95% CI, –40% to –20%). Numbers are projected to decrease in all subregions except the subregions of sub-Saharan, Eastern, Middle, and Western Africa, which are expected to experience substantial increases in the number of underweight children. An overall improvement in the global situation is anticipated; however, neither the world as a whole, nor the developing regions, are expected to achieve the Millennium Development goals. This is largely due to the deteriorating situation in Africa where all subregions, except Northern Africa, are expected to fail to meet the goal. A data file was constructed and consisted of region, subregion, country, survey year, sample size, prevalence of underweight, and population of children younger than 5 years during the survey year. To obtain comparable prevalences of underweight children across countries, surveys were analyzed following a standard format using the National Center for Health Statistics and WHO international reference population, the same cut-off point (ie, 2 SDs below the mean weight for age), and the same reporting system (ie, z score). The steps followed to analyze the surveys in a standard way have been described elsewhere. (author's)
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Child nutrition and oral health in Ulaanbaatar.

    Karvonen HM; Nuutinen O; Uusitalo U; Sorvari R; Ihanainen M

    Nutrition Research. 2003; 23(9):1165-1176.

    This study investigated the nutritional status and eating habits of Mongolian children in relation to dental health. Growth and oral health of 151 Ulaanbaatarian children under age five were examined, and their parents were interviewed on child’s health and eating habits. Every tenth child had a low weight for age and the mean energy intake of the weaned children was 89%-96% of the recommendation by WHO. Frequent eating exposed the teeth of children to many acid attacks. Every third child over age three had serious developmental defects in their teeth, which might be associated with deficient intakes of energy and calcium, highly variable vitamin D supplementation and gastrointestinal infections. All of the examined 4 to 5-year old children had caries and the average number of decayed teeth was 6.5. Severe caries was related to the abundant use of sugar, whereas proper dental health was related to use of hard cheese. (author's)
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  23. 23

    Living well with HIV / AIDS: a manual on nutritional care and support for people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Food and Nutrition Division. Nutrition Programmes Service; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 2002. vi, 97 p.

    The links between nutrition and infection are well known. Good nutrition is essential for achieving and preserving health while helping the body to protect itself from infections. Consumption of a well-balanced diet is essential to make up for the loss of energy and nutrients caused by infections. Good nutrition also helps to promote a sense of well-being and to strengthen the resolve of the sick to get better. The nutritional advice in this manual can help sick people, including those living with HIV/AIDS, to feel better. Few crises have affected human health and threatened national, social and economic progress in quite the way that HIV/AIDS has. The pandemic has had a devastating impact on household food security and nutrition through its effects on the availability and stability of food, and access to food and its use for good nutrition. Agricultural production and employment are severely affected and health and social services put under great strain. Families lose their ability to work and to produce. With worsening poverty, families also lose their ability to acquire food and to meet other basic needs. Time and household resources are consumed in an effort to care for sick family members, partners may become infected, families may be discriminated against and become socially marginalized, children may be orphaned and the elderly left to cope as best they can. Meeting immediate food, nutrition and other basic needs is essential if HIV/AIDS-affected households are to live with dignity and security. Providing nutritional care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS is an important part of caring at all stages of the disease. This manual provides home care agents and local service providers with practical recommendations for a healthy and well-balanced diet for people living with HIV/AIDS. It deals with common complications that people living with HIV/AIDS experience at different stages of infection and helps provide local solutions that emphasize using local food resources and home-based care and support. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Infant growth and health outcomes associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Kramer MS; Guo T; Platt RW; Sevkovskaya Z; Dzikovich I

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Aug; 78(2):291-295.

    Background: Opinions and recommendations about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been strongly divided, but few published studies have provided direct evidence on the relative risks and benefits of different breastfeeding durations in recipient infants. Objective: We examined the effects on infant growth and health of 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We conducted an observational cohort study nested within a large randomized trial in Belarus by comparing 2862 infants exclusively breastfed for 3 mo (with continued mixed breastfeeding through = 6 mo) with 621 infants who were exclusively breastfed for = 6 mo. Regression to the mean, within-cluster correlation, and cluster- and individual-level confounding variables were accounted for by using multilevel regression analyses. Results: From 3 to 6 mo, weight gain was slightly greater in the 3-mo group [difference: 29 g/mo (95% CI: 13, 45 g/mo)], as was length gain [difference: 1.1 mm (0.5, 1.6 mm)], but the 6-mo group had a faster length gain from 9 to 12 mo [difference: 0.9 mm/mo (0.3, 1.5 mm/mo)] and a larger head circumference at 12 mo [difference: 0.19 cm (0.07, 0.31 cm)]. A significant reduction in the incidence density of gastrointestinal infection was observed during the period from 3 to 6 mo in the 6-mo group [adjusted incidence density ratio: 0.35 (0.13, 0.96)], but no significant differences in risk of respiratory infectious outcomes or atopic eczema were apparent. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo is associated with a lower risk of gastrointestinal infection and no demonstrable adverse health effects in the first year of life. (author's)
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous adolescent girls. [Estado nutricional de adolescentes vegetarianas y omnívoras]

    Meirelles CD; da Veiga GV; Soares ED

    Nutrition Research. 2001 May; 21(5):689-702.

    This study compared the dietary and anthropometric profile of 24 ovo-lacto-vegetarian and 36 omnivorous female adolescents, between 15 and 18 years old. Weight, height and skinfolds were measured. Food frequency questionnaires and a three day food record were used for dietary assessment. Vegetarians presented subscapular, suprailiac and midaxillary skinfolds statistically higher than omnivores, but the percent body fat was not different. The vegetarian diet provided smaller amounts of energy than that of the omnivores ( p < 0.05) and only 17% of the vegetarians was able to reach the recommended allowance for protein. Regarding calcium, 83% of the vegetarians and 69% of the omnivores ate less than 2/3 of the recommended allowances and a significantly higher percentage of vegetarians presented low ingestion of iron, riboflavin, and niacin than omnivores ( p < 0.05). It was concluded that the intake of vegetarians was lower in fat and cholesterol, and less adequate in micronutrients than the omnivores ones. (author's)
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