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MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2016 Feb 12; 65(5):115-9.Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities.
HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.
Transfusion Clinique Et Biologique. 2009 Nov-Dec; 16(5-6):444-7.Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (p<0.001) higher among donations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Sep 23; 368(9541):1064-1065.Viviana Simon and colleagues provide a valuable update on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV/AIDS. However, they do not mention that iatrogenic routes still contribute to HIV spread in developing countries. Data from WHO's Global Database on Blood Safety indicate that, in 2001--02, more than 6 million blood units were not screened for major bloodborne infections, including HIV. Most of these unscreened donations are collected in poor regions of the world, where HIV infection is more frequent and the basic requirements for a modern transfusion system (ie, the collection of a locally sufficient blood supply from non-remunerated donors, within a formal organisational and legislative framework) remain unmet Transfusions in developing countries are mainly given to young women and children. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct. 7 p. (UNAIDS Point of View; UNAIDS Best Practice Collection)Eighty percent of the world's population live in developing countries, but developing countries use only 20% of the world's blood supply for transfusions. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes AIDS is easily transmitted through blood transfusions. In fact, the chances that someone who has received a transfusion with HIV-infected blood will himself or herself become infected are estimated at over 90%. While millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusions, in countries where a safe blood supply is not guaranteed, recipients of blood run an increased risk of infection with HIV. Other diseases -- such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, Chagas disease and malaria -- can also easily be transmitted through blood transfusions. Worldwide, up to 4 million blood donations a year are not tested for either HIV or hepatitis B. Very few donations are tested for hepatitis C. (excerpt)
Reproductive health emergency assistance - United Nations Population Fund airlift to Eritrea - Brief article.
UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2): p..The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on 22 June began airlifting life-saving motherhood and reproductive health supplies to help Eritreans displaced by the recent fighting with Ethiopia. UNFPA's emergency assistance, including home delivery kits and tools for blood transfusions, will help reduce maternal and child deaths and unwanted pregnancies for some 450,000 displaced persons for about three months. The reproductive health kit was first used in the Great Lakes region of Africa in 1996. Since then, UNFPA has responded to emergencies in 33 countries and territories. (excerpt)
Vox Sanguinis. 2002; 83 Suppl 1:173-177.A safe blood supply is a critical component in improving health care and in preventing the spread of infectious diseases globally. Millions of lives are saved each year through blood transfusions. Safe blood transfusion is an extremely cost-effective measure in developed countries such as the USA, where 2% of the health care budget which is spent on Blood Transfusion Services benefits 50% of the health services. Yet the quality and safety of blood transfusion therapy is of continuing concern, particularly in developing countries where 80% of the world's population lives. This concern is related to the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) due to unsafe transfusions. This results from blood collected from unsafe donors, the lack of quality systems in blood transfusion services, poor laboratory procedures in blood group serology and inadequate testing of donated blood for TTIs, errors in the administration of blood, and a lack of access and appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products for patients requiring transfusion. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004.  p.The 2001 report on HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific region published by the WHO Regional Offices for South-East Asia and the Western Pacific presented an overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, followed by a description of the general patterns and prevalence of HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence trends in the region, as well as in individual countries. This vast geographic region combines the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions and contains 60% of the total world population. Thus, even low HIV infection rates in this region will contribute millions of additional people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and deaths to the already staggering global toll of AIDS. This report provides an update on HIV/AIDS in the region and focuses on the continuing HIV prevalence trends noted in the previous report. It also noted some changes that may be occurring with regard to the public health surveillance and epidemiology of HIV/ AIDS. In addition, the epidemiological patterns of HIV, especially current HIV transmission dynamics, are described for each country. HIV is primarily a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and, as with all STI, the major driving force of the pandemic is heterosexual transmission. Although high rates of HIV infection (50% and higher) have been found and may still occur among injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM), more than 90% of the global total of estimated adult infections are due to heterosexual transmission. HIV/AIDS is present at varying prevalence levels in MSM in several regions of the world. Explosive spread of HIV still occurs among IDU populations worldwide and sexual transmission occurs throughout the world in both males and females, especially in those who have unprotected sex with multiple and concurrent partners, such as female sex workers (FSW). Extensive or epidemic heterosexual spread of HIV, affecting 1% or more of the sexually active population, has occurred in sub-Saharan countries, a few countries in the Caribbean and Central America, and a few countries in South and South-east Asia. Considering the presence of risk factors for HIV infection, such as high-risk behaviours and other sexually transmitted infections, and the vulnerability to HIV infection in the region, the major public health question is what actions need to be taken to maintain this low HIV prevalence. However, a response cannot be properly formulated without understanding the HIV epidemic status and trends in the region. (excerpt)
Living in a world with HIV and AIDS: Information for employees of the United Nations system and their families.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS/04.27E)Knowledge can be powerful. Because it is committed to a fair, safe and compassionate workplace, the UN system wants us to be fully informed about issues that can affect the workplace, including HIV and AIDS. Our right to understand UN-system policies on HIV and AIDS extends to all employees, including those who are and are not HIV-infected. The UN-system personnel policy on HIV/AIDS and the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work are the two frameworks available for UN workplace programmes. The ILO Code is the internationally recognized benchmark for HIV-related workplace policies. The UN-system personnel policy on HIV/AIDS is Annex 1 of this booklet and a summary of the 10 key principles of the ILO Code is Annex 2. We have learned a great deal about HIV/AIDS since the UN system began responding to it in 1987. At that time, many important questions remained unanswered. What were the best means of preventing infection? Could AIDS ever be treated? How might HIV best be handled in the workplace? Today, we have clear answers to these and many other key questions about HIV and AIDS. This booklet provides information on HIV/AIDS that we and our families may need. Specifically, it is designed to help us: KNOW the essential facts about HIV/AIDS; PROTECT ourselves and our families from HIV infection; LIVE POSITIVELY with HIV; and LET LIVE by contributing to a tolerant, equitable and compassionate UN-system workplace. (excerpt)
In: Health and disease in developing countries, edited by Kari S. Lankinen, Staffan Bergstrom, P. Helena Makela, Miikka Peltomaa. London, England, Macmillan Press, 1994. 503-11.Blood transfusion is a routine hospital function. Whole blood and red cell concentrates are needed for managing anemia and hemorrhage, while plasma, coagulation factors, white cell and platelet concentrates are used for the management of burns, hemophilia, and hematological disorders. The blood transfusion services (BTS) should be part of the national health plan. Transfusion medicine consists of donor recruitment and retention, collection, testing, processing, storage of blood, and training of physicians in appropriate use of blood. Estimation of the need of blood and blood components is usually difficult to make. An annual collection of 5 units of blood per hospital and in acute care is sufficient. Formulation of a national blood policy is necessary for every country. The policy should define: 1) the responsible organization for implementation of the blood program, 2) the method of funding the BTS, 3) the concept of blood donation, and 4) the regulations of blood donation and transfusion. Already 61% of developing and 32% of the least developed countries have adopted such a policy. Responsibility for the organization of transfusion services lies with the ministries of health, which may delegated it to a governmental or nongovernmental organization. The Red Cross is most often associated with BTS. Provision of funding is effected by an annual allocation or on a cost recovery basis. Processing and storage requires refrigeration. Costing of blood transfusion services must include the capital and overhead costs. Other topics included in this report are: national blood transfusion service; recruitment and selection of blood donors (voluntary unpaid blood donation and donor recruitment utilizes the importance of this service to society); collection and processing of blood (testing ABO and Rh groups, HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, Chagas disease, and malaria); blood transfusion service in a small hospital; recruitment and training of personnel; and international organizations dealing with blood transfusion.