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JAMA. 2004 Jan 7; 291(1):31-32.The global AIDS epidemic infected an estimated 5 million individuals in 2003, bringing the world total of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS to 40 million, said officials from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The disease claimed about 3 million lives--the highest toll ever for a single year. Although sub-Saharan Africa remains the most severely affected region, tallying two thirds of all infections and more than two thirds of all deaths, HIV also is spreading rapidly in Eastern Europe and making worrisome inroads in Asia, threatening the immense populations of China and India. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1992. , 15 p. (WHO/GPA/RES/SFI/92.1)A summary of current state and future trends to HIV infections and AIDS cases in world regions prepared from the most recent information on file at the WHO Global Programme on AIDS as of January 1992. HIV infection and AIDS began in the 1980s or earlier in homosexual or bisexual men and intravenous drug users in urban Americas, Australia, and Western Europe, and in heterosexuals in East and Central Africa. There is another virus called HIV-2 with a lower virulence, but similar mode of transmission and clinical syndrome prevalent in West Africa. By 1992 450,000 AIDS cases were reported to WHO, but about 1.5 million AIDS cases are thought to have occurred, including 500,000 in children. About 9-11 million HIV infections, including 1 million in children, are estimated to exist. In Australia, North America, and Western Europe, spread of HIV to homosexuals has decreased, but growth in the intravenous drug-using population and heterosexuals may still occur. In Latin America prevalence is high in homosexual or bisexual men, injecting drug users, and prostitutes, and is increasing dramatically in women. In Africa heterosexual transmission is still the rule; infections from blood products account for about 10% of cases. In East and Central Africa 2/3 of the HIV cases are in 9 countries, where urban HIV prevalence reaches 25-33% in adults. In Africa there is also a growing problem of 750,000 pediatric AIDS so far, and possible 10 million orphans in the 1990s. Spread of HIV in high risk populations in South East Asia is rapid, notably in Bangkok, Thailand, in Yangon, Myanmar, and in Bombay and in northeastern India. The potential for spread in this region is a great concern. Areas of East Asia contiguous with South East Asia are also at risk. In Eastern Europe there are clusters of outbreaks related to improper use of blood products. WHO predicts that 4 million people have HIV and TB. WHO projects that global HIV infection will amount to 15-20 million by 2000. A major research topic and concern is estimation of when and at what level HIV prevalence will peak in world regions.
Lancet. 1992 May 9; 339(8802):1162-3.HIV infection was detected in India in 1986 in 6 female prostitutes. Current estimates are that 1 million people in India are HIV positive. The official number of AIDS cases to date is 112. In Bombay, Pune, and Madras, 33% of the prostitutes and 50% of the IV drug users have become HIV positive. There have been reports of HIV positive blood donors and new born infants with HIV. To complicate matters, India is currently experiencing a tuberculosis epidemic with 9 million cases and 500,000 deaths annually. India is receiving US$84 million from the World Bank over the next 5 years plus special WHO funding for a national AIDS prevention and control campaign.