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  1. 1

    The HIV / AIDS epidemic in African American communities: Lessons from UNAIDS and Africa.

    Okigbo C; Okigbo CA; Hall WB Jr; Ziegler D

    Journal of Black Studies. 2002; 32(6):615-653.

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has afflicted Africa more than any other region of the world. In the United States, the AIDS scourge has disproportionately affected African American communities. In their tragic experiences with HIV/AIDS, both African states and African American communities can benefit from the new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Programme and the Pennsylvania State University have developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values that are recommended for AIDS intervention programs across the world. The five values are incorporation of government policies, socioeconomic status, culture, gender issues, and spirituality. There are six additional values, two of which apply uniquely to each of the three world regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For Africa, the two unique values are community-based approaches and regional cooperation. The situation in Africa presents valuable lessons for African Americans in the United States. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Imprisonment of children, slavery, racial discrimination acted on by human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22:[6] p..

    The imprisonment of children, slavery, genocide, and racial discrimination in South Africa and Namibia were among the topics acted upon by the Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its meeting in Geneva (5-30 August). The Sub-Commission strongly condemned South Africa for "brutal acts of terrorism" carried out to suppress the black majority's realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It demanded the "immediate lifting" of the state of emergency and called upon the international community to continue its efforts towards total economic, cultural and political isolation of South Africa until that country abandoned its policy of apartheid and its illegal occupation of Namibia. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    A decade of the United Nations' convention on the rights of the child: implications for child nutrition and for the conceptualization of norms and interventions in public-health nutrition.

    Solomons NW

    Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug; 16(7-8):640-642.

    As we initiate the third millennium, we all must recognize that the goal of “health for all by the year 2000,” enunciated by the World Health Organization, fell far short of becoming a reality. The issue of human rights has emerged increasingly as a topic of public discourse, perhaps in proportion to the extent of their violation. More recently linked to this discussion has been that of food as a human right or nutrition as a human right. For the nutritional scientist, practitioner, or public-health professional, there is a documentary trail that guides us in these considerations. It begins with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proposed by the late Eleanor Roosevelt, and extends to its derivative covenant: the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The CRC was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N.) on November 20, 1989, and entered into force on September 2, 1990. In a matter of months, the force of this document will be entering its second decade. Like the segment of the population it proposes to represent and defend, it has had some growing pains to overcome. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    King in a maverick style.

    Abbasi K

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1999 Oct 9; 319(7215):942.

    This article features Maurice King, who is advocating a one-child world. King was born in 1927 in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and studied at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and St. Thomas Hospital, London. He first worked as a pathologist, moving to Africa in 1956. He was always willing to fight injustice, objecting to not being allowed to train black Africans. He authored Medical Care in Developing Countries, considered the Bible of the primary health care movement. By 1985, he was teaching public health medicine at Leeds University, having spent most of his time in Africa working on various projects for the WHO, and was focusing on primary health care. His other great cause then was nuclear disarmament. His lecture to the Royal Society of Medicine on health of Africa in 1988 ignited his interest in demography. He had then championed ideas, which initially provoked outrage, such as the case with entrapment, the hardinian taboo, and now his concept of the lockstep. He had claimed that the US State Department, together with UN, the World Bank and the Roman Catholic Church, is actively preventing population issues being discussed fully. He may appear on the surface as obsessed with imposing a one-child world and paranoid about the role of the US; but a closer analysis reveals a deep affection for Africa and a missionary zeal to surmount the problems of overpopulation.
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  5. 5

    Confronting AIDS: update 1988.

    Institute of Medicine

    Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. x, 239 p.

    The Committee for the Oversight of AIDS Activities presents an update to and review of the progress made since the publication 1 1/2 years ago of Confronting Aids. Chapter 1 discusses the special nature of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) as an incurable fatal infection, striking mainly young adults (particularly homosexuals and intravenous drug users), and clustering in geographic areas, e.g., New York and San Francisco. Chapter 2 states conclusively that HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS and that HIV infection leads inevitably to AIDS, that sexual contact and contaminated needles are the main vehicles of transmission, and that the future composition of AIDS patients (62,000 in the US) will be among poor, urban minorities. Chapter 3 discusses the utility of mathematical models in predicting the future course of the epidemic. Chapter 4 discusses the negative impact of discrimination, the importance of education (especially of intravenous drug users), and the need for improved diagnostic tests. It maintains that screening should generally be confidential and voluntary, and mandatory only in the case of blood, tissue, and organ donors. It also suggests that sterile needles be made available to drug addicts. Chapter 5 stresses the special care needs of drug users, children, and the neurologically impaired; discusses the needs and responsibilities of health care providers; and suggests ways of distributing the financial burden of AIDS among private and government facilities. Chapter 6 discusses the nomenclature and reproductive strategy of the virus and the needs for basic research, facilities and funding to develop new drugs and possibly vaccines. Chapter 7 discusses the global nature of the epidemic, the responsibilities of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS, the need for the US to pay for its share of the WHO program, and the special responsibility that the US should assume in view of its resources in scientific personnel and facilities. Chapter 8 recommends the establishment of a national commission on AIDS with advisory responsibility for all aspects of AIDS. There are 4 appendices: Appendix A summarizes the 1986 publication Confronting Aids; Appendix B reprints the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classification scheme for HIV infections; Appendix C is a list of the 60 correspondents who prepared papers for the AIDS Activities Oversight Committee; and Appendix D gives biographical sketches of the Committee members.
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  6. 6

    Questions and answers about the charge of "genocide" as it relates to Planned Parenthood-World Population, its affiliates, and the provision and expansion of private and publicly sponsored family planning programs in the U.S.

    Stewart DE

    New York, Planned parenthood-World Population. 1969; 12.

    A small minority in the black community has adopted a pro-natalist p osition, and charged that family planning is a racist plan to keep non-w hites weak in number. On the premise that both sides on this question must keep communication open and non-defensive in an effort to understand each other, the author attempts to answer these charges direc tly. He offers a brief history of the subject, summarizes medical, scientific and factual answers to the charges and, in question-and-answe r format, suggests how these charges might be dealt with by family planning personnel.
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