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  1. 1


    International Planned Parenthood Federation

    London, England, IPPF, 1984. 3 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Long term problems of population growth in China are indicated by the fact that 65% of the 1,024,950,000 1983 population is under 30 years of age; 50% is under 21. Although family planning was started in the 1950s, it was neglected during the 1960s Cultural Revolution, and did not become a national program until 1971. The one child per family policy, proposed in 1978, has since become the basis for government regulations which are strictly enforced. Family planning messages are conveyed through every possible type of media, and services are made available to the entire population. Various economic incentives and disincentives such as, monthly health care subsidies granted to couples who have only one child until he reaches the age of 14, grain allocations for an only child, and larger private plots, are used to help reward those who obey the family planning policy. All contraceptives are available free of charge: at the end of 1983, 69.5% of fertile couples were using some form of modern contraceptive method. The China Family Planning Association was formed in 1980 with the objective of assisting the government program by motivating people to accept family planning. The Association's 3 year plan for 1985-1987 is: 1) to strengthen family planning publicity; 2) to increase the management and professional skills of the personnel; 3) to strengthen the Association's organization at central and branch level; and 4) to participate in international conferences and other activities.
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  2. 2

    [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights] Planification familiale et diverses declarations des droits de la personne humaine.

    Gakwaya D


    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end.
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  3. 3

    Socio-economic determinants of fertility: an assessment of recent findings and their implications.

    Cleland JG

    In: Population policies and programmes: current status and future directions, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 43-58. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 84; ST/ESCAP/563)

    The influence of socioeconomic factors on marital fertility and its connection to population policies is the purpose of a recent UN study. It has been found that birth control can effect the rate of decline but not initiate reproductive change. Events over the last 30 years indicate that a decline in marital fertility once started in a population will continue much further. In Europe declines in fertility between late 1800's and early 1900's were significant with no association to the socioeconomic conditions. For example, England at the time was highly industrialized; Bulgaria on the other hand was mainly agricultural, clearly eliminating simple economic reasons. Life expectancy and education show a stronger relationship with fertility decline than economic factors, and are analyzed more. Declining child mortality can change population policies of governments and practices of parents where irreversible birth control dominate. There appear to be no definite socioeconomic barriers to fertility decline, since a decline has occurred in populations with poverty, illiteracy and subsistence agriculture conditions. The conclusion from previous evidence indicates fertility decline starts because of acceptance of major behavioral changes, i.e., birth control, which allow parents to prevent unwanted children. There seems to be little in the way that governments can influence levels of fertility by socioeconomic levels. Education, on the other hand, can effect fertility but has the drawback of a generational lag. In the immediate future, the promotion of birth control and the expansion of services for the less educated and rural people should offer the most progress.
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  4. 4

    [Population policies and programs worldwide and in Rwanda] Politiques et programmes de population dans le monde et au Rwanda.

    Semana E


    The equilibrium between population and the earth was already recognized in ancient India and China. One of the reasons for colonialization was the need to get rid of surplus populations. The 20th century has witnessed an explosion in population growth, and the United Nations created a fund in 1969 to deal with this problem. In 1974 a global action program was drafted in Bucharest followed by a conference in Arusha in 1984 drafting an African action program, and an international conference in Mexico in 1984. The colonial population programs in Rwanda stressed economic and sanitary incentives as well as migration which was stopped in 1954 and resumed after independence. Under the 2nd development plan, the National Office of Population (ONAPO) was created in 1981. Its functions included the promotion of maternal and child health and the spacing of births. During the 2nd plan the growth rate was 3.7%, while under the previous plan it had been 2.6%. A 3rd plan was devised with the objective of holding the increase of growth at 3.7% and to reduce it rapidly after 1986, delaying the birth of the 1st child for the 15-24 age group, and limiting births by women over age 40. A 4th plan is being prepared whose main objective is to regulate fertility and promote agricultural output. A 1983 national survey showed that 25% of pregnancies could be avoided and the ideal of 6.3 children/woman instead of 8.6 could be achieved if they had access to family planning. 31% were willing to use contraceptives and 20.3% did not want more children.
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  5. 5

    Family planning and health: an evaluation.

    Pomeroy R

    Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):9-10.

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of America supports international family planning efforts through its affiliation with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and the activities of its own International Division, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA). FPIA is founded on the beliefs that family planning is a basic human right; family planning programs benefit individuals, families, communities, and nations; and family planning along with other needed socieconomic programs can have a major impact on development. Careful timing, spacing, and limiting of births is directly and causally related to improved infant and maternal survival through readily observed and easily explained mechanisms. Mothers in developing countries are anywhere from 10 to 20 or 30 times as likely to die in childbirth as mothers in developed countries. Risks are greatest for mothers under 18 years old, over 30, for those having births within 2 years of a previous birth, and 4th or later deliveries. The differences occur for women at all levels of affluence and access to medical care in all societies, but are particularly sharp in developing countries. Among the poorest countries, 200 or more of every 1000 liveborn infants may die in their 1st year compared to fewer than 10/1000 live births in some wealthy egalitarian countries. The infant mortality rate is so closely related to the overall level of well-being in a country or region that it is regarded as 1 of the most revealing measures of how well a society is meeting the needs of its people. Many of the risk factors for maternal mortality also contribute to infant mortality. Infant mortality in developing countries drops appreciably when women practice family planning and reduce the number of high risk pregnancies. Throughout the developing world, the higher risk infants born to very young or older mothers, mothers with recent previous pregnancies, and mothers with 3 or 4 previous births are 3-10 times more likely to die in their 1st year. Too short birth intervals may threaten the life of the older child through early weaning and resulting increased susceptibility to malnutrition and infection. Careful planning of births through contraception can result in a population better able to contribute economically and less likely to strain the medical resources.
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