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  1. 1
    334133
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality estimation: Methods used to adjust for bias due to AIDS in estimating trends in under-five mortality.

    Walker N; Hill K; Zhao F

    PLOS Medicine. 2012 Aug; 9(8):e1001298.

    In most low- and middle-income countries, child mortality is estimated from data provided by mothers concerning the survival of their children using methods that assume no correlation between the mortality risks of the mothers and those of their children. This assumption is not valid for populations with generalized HIV epidemics, however, and in this review, we show how the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) uses a cohort component projection model to correct for AIDS-related biases in the data used to estimate trends in under-five mortality. In this model, births in a given year are identified as occurring to HIV-positive or HIV-negative mothers, the lives of the infants and mothers are projected forward using survivorship probabilities to estimate survivors at the time of a given survey, and the extent to which excess mortality of children goes unreported because of the deaths of HIV-infected mothers prior to the survey is calculated. Estimates from the survey for past periods can then be adjusted for the estimated bias. The extent of the AIDS-related bias depends crucially on the dynamics of the HIV epidemic, on the length of time before the survey that the estimates are made for, and on the underlying non-AIDS child mortality. This simple methodology (which does not take into account the use of effective antiretroviral interventions) gives results qualitatively similar to those of other studies.
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  2. 2
    272535

    Measuring childhood mortality: a guide for simple surveys.

    David PH; Bisharat L; Hill AG; Bennett S

    Amman, Jordan, United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North America, 1990. 172 p.

    This handbook is intended to aid the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) handle surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage surveys (expanded program of immunization- -EPI) surveys or to diarrheal mortality and morbidity surveys (MMT). By including all women of reproductive ages in each household as part of EPI coverage surveys, the survey window has widened. The core modality module (CMM) locks neatly into this flow. It is not intended to be a substitute for other ways to measure child mortality. Infant and under- age-5 mortality are indicators of social welfare. The reasons why these surveys are called "simple" or "rapid" are listed. Measurement of mortality is covered in Chapter 1. The Brass method, the birth history, the preceding births technique, and the design and execution of a simple mortality survey are discussed here. Formulating the questionnaire is covered in the next chapter. Discussed here are the mortality module; translation, layout and pretesting of the questionnaire; the screening questionnaire, and the mortality questionnaire (Modules A and B). Chapter 3 discusses the design of a sample survey to measure childhood mortality. Discussed here are cluster and stratified sampling, modifying EPI surveys for purposes of mortality estimation, selecting the sample and the clusters, determining sample size, and the requirements of a good sample. Collecting the data is discussed in chapter 4. Topics discussed include field work, preparation of the interview instructions, field supervisor and interviewers, selection and training of field staff, training course outline, selecting households in the sample, quality control; supervisor's responsibilities, how to handle an interview, and how to fill in the questionnaire. The 5th chapter discusses data analysis. Under data analysis, data tabulation of the mortality data, the Brass estimates of childhood mortality and trends, preceding birth technique estimates, estimates from the short birth history, technical note: calculating sampling error for proportions and points to remember are described. How to write the report is discussed in chapter 6.
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  3. 3
    050654

    [Data and analysis methodology] Donnees et methodes d'analyse.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Secretariat

    In: Infant and childhood mortality and socio-economic factors in Africa. (Analysis of national World Fertility Survey data) / Mortalite infantile et juvenile et facteurs socio-economiques en Afrique. (Analyse des donnees nationales de l'Enquete Mondiale sur la Fecondite), [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, ECA, 1987. 7-26. (RAF/84/P07)

    Technical problems and methods associated with the analysis of differential child mortality data for a conference of representatives from 8 African countries, sponsored by the UN Economic Commission for Africa and the International Statistical Institute are described. The data being interpreted were from the World Fertility Surveys, conducted between 1977 and 1981, including complete birth histories of women up to 50 years of age. A core questionnaire contained 7 sections on woman's background, maternity history, contraceptive knowledge and marriage history, fertility regulation, work history and husband's background. Mortality was measured by Brass methods and the cohort approach with analysis of determining factors. No adjustment was made for omission of births and of dead children: since underreporting is more likely to occur in the past, current mortality estimates can be considered fairly accurate. Methods of correcting for misreporting are described. The extent of potential bias due to lack of data on children whose mothers were deceased at the time of survey is unknown. Another source of bias is truncation due to loss of data on older children born to older women. Generally the quality of the World Fertility Survey mortality data is reasonably good, compared to other studies.
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