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  1. 1
    074782

    Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.

    World Resources Institute; World Conservation Union [IUCN]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; UNESCO

    Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.

    Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
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  2. 2
    200951

    Toward the well-being of the elderly.

    Pan American Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)

    At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
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  3. 3
    209228

    [Family health selected list of publications] Sante de la famille liste de publications selectionnees.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Division of Family Health, 1985. 15 p. (FHE/85.3.)

    This list of 1978-1984 publications and documents of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers subjects that have been given priority on the regional and global levels relating to family health. The sections are divided into 1) Family Health, 2) Maternal and Child Health, 3) Maternal and Child Care, 4) Infant and Young Child Nutrition, 5) Nutrition, and 6) Health Education. Publications listed with a price, and back numbers of periodicals, are for sale and can be obtained through a bookseller, from any of the stocklists shown at the end of this document, or directly from the WHO distribution and sales office.
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  4. 4
    082305

    Jessica Tuchman Mathews: the case for reinventing technology to promote sustainable development.

    Lerner SD

    In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.

    The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
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  5. 5
    075154

    State of the marine environment in the South Asian Seas Region.

    Sen Gupta R; Ali M; Bhuiyan AL; Hossain MM; Sivalingam PM; Subasinghe S; Tirmizi NM

    [Nairobi, Kenya], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], 1990. [5], 42 p. (UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 123)

    The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) ocean program is studying global marine environments to form a policy to protect the oceans. This report examines the marine environment of the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Andaman Sea. Bacteria and viruses comprise the most important contaminants in the South Asia seas. They enter marine life which humans eat and then develop diarrhea. Pathogens enter the seas through untreated sewage which causes much eutrophication. Zooplankton contain considerable concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides. None of the zooplankton samples drawn from seas around India in 1978, 1981, 1983, and 1985 contained mercury, however. Yet mercury and other heavy metals are present in fish species in at least the Ganges River estuary, Andaman Sea, the Karachi harbor in Pakistan, and seas around Bangladesh. Common chlorinated pesticides found off the coast of India include DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and BHC. Industrial development is increasing the levels of other contaminants such as solid waste and synthetic detergents. Coastal erosion is common in South Asia. Considerable siltation occurs at the head of the Bay of Bengal. Several urban areas are reclaiming the sea using materials from solid wastes and garbage, but these materials leach which causes public health problems. In India, nuclear power plants operate near the coast where they release 50% of the generated heat to the coastal environment. Dredge materials from harbors in India are dumped offshore which resulted in almost complete depletion of fisheries near these harbors. Tourism poses a threat to coastal environments due to the increase in nonbiodegradable solid waste such as cans, plastics, and empty bottles. Oil tanker disasters, bilge washings, and discharge of ballast water contribute to the sizable amount of oil pollution in the Indian ocean. Exploitation damages coral reefs, mineral deposits, mangroves, and marine life.
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  6. 6
    055652

    Breastfeeding as an intervention within diarrhea diseases control programs: WHO/CDD activities.

    Hogan R; Martines J

    In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. 13 p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program (CDD) is seeking ways to prevent diarrhea and has identified breastfeeding as an important factor. CDD has developed activities in both its research and services components. In the research component, results from recent studies, some of which received support from the program, have shown the strong protective effect of breastfeeding against diarrheal morbidity and mortality. Exclusively breastfed infants are at lower risk of experiencing diarrhea than infants who are partially breastfed, and those who are partially breastfed are at lower risk than those who are not breastfed. Breastfeeding, which also may reduce the severity of the diarrheal illness, has a powerful effect on the risk of diarrhea-associated death. CDD's priorities for research support in the area of infant feeding were reviewed at an April 1988 meeting. Further research that the program feels is needed falls into 2 broad categories: trials of hospital and community-based interventions that aim to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the 1st 4-6 months of life; and evaluation of approaches for implementing tested breastfeeding promotion interventions in the context of national diarrheal disease control programs. CDD's services component has as its basic responsibility collaboration with countries in developing national control programs. It applies the results of research and involves activities in planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS) supply, training, communication, monitoring, and evaluation. It is in the area of training that specific recommendations on breastfeeding have been made. These recommendations are outlined. The training courses are being used to train approximately 5000 supervisory and management staff a year. The program plans to monitor the effectiveness of the training and develop future activities based on that information.
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  7. 7
    055647

    Supporting breastfeeding: what governments and health workers can do. European experiences.

    Helsing E

    In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. [21] p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    In 1986 the European Regional World Health Organization (WHO) Office convened a meeting of health workers' organizations to develop a strategy for implementing breastfeeding promotion. The elements in this strategy are outlined along with the reasons why some countries have seen increases in breastfeeding and a discussion of the possible ways international organizations can help. The "International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes" constitutes the clearest mandate for an "action program" in the field of breastfeeding. It provides a framework for action and for the formulation of a breastfeeding promotion strategy. Further, the "Code" identifies the obligations of both governments and health workers. According to the Resolution recommending the "Code," one of the obligations of governments is to report regularly to WHO on the progress in 5 areas of infant nutrition: encouragement and support of breastfeeding; promotion and support of appropriate weaning practices; strengthening of education, training, and information; promotion of health and social status of women in relation to infant and young child feeding; and appropriate marketing and distribution of breast milk substitutes. The WHO member states in the European Region have taken their reporting obligation seriously; 71 reports from 29 of the 32 members states have been received. The picture that emerges is one of large diversity with regard to breastfeeding both among and within countries. The European Strategy outlines 7 priority areas for action: the basic attitude of health workers; maternity ward routines; the formation of breastfeeding mothers' support groups; ways to support employed mothers who want to breastfeed; research in breastfeeding; commercial pressure on health workers; and the need for advocacy of breastfeeding. The promotion of breastfeeding is the cumulative effect of activities from several different disciplines that becomes evident in the statistics as an increase in breastfeeding. Factors that contribute to an increase in breastfeeding, based on the Scandinavian experience, are outlined. In regard to establishing a breastfeeding policy, the various activities that can encourage and support breastfeeding fall into 3 categories: making breast milk available to the baby by influencing the material conditions of breastfeeding; increasing knowledge either about human milk or about lactation management as well as about changing attitudes and behavior; and assuring the quality of the milk itself. Ideally, an organization with an advisory and to some degree an executive, decision-making function coordinates these activities.
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  8. 8
    055662

    Breastfeeding and health care services.

    Jolly R

    In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. 7 p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    Breastfeeding is on the decline in most countries, despite the fact it can help prevent the 38,000 daily deaths of infants and young children through its nutritional, immunologic, and sanitary aspects. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have combined to issue guidelines on the role of maternity services in promoting breastfeeding. In the most developed countries, breastfeeding has increased despite generally unsupportive hospital environments, the availability of clean water, and the fact that breastfeeding was virtually a lost practice in these countries 40 years ago. An increased awareness of the benefits, some of which are outlined, coupled with mother-to-mother support are most likely to have influenced this increase. The guidelines developed by WHO/UNICEF seek to put into practice specific recommendations agreed upon by pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, nutritionists, nurses, midwives, and other health care providers in national and international forums. The main points of the guidelines are as follows: every facility providing maternity services should develop a policy on breastfeeding, communicate it to all staff, define specific practices to implement the policy, and ensure that all staff are adequately trained in the skills necessary to ensure implementation of the policy; facilities for 24-hour rooming-in, initiation of breastfeeding immediately after delivery, and demand-feeding are essential in every maternity ward; every pregnant mother should be informed fully about how breast milk is formed, the proper way to nurse a child, and the benefits of breastfeeding; and harmful practices, such as the use of bottles and teats for newborn infants, should be eliminated during this early period and exclusive breastfeeding maintained for at least 4-6 months from birth. These activities, when fully implemented, will ensure that every mother/infant couple reached prenatally, at birth, and postnatally gets off to a good start. Then, other support services will be more effective. These standards have been successful in the field and have had a positive impact on the rates of breastfeeding. A need exists for collaboration and an interdisciplinary approach to the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding, and, hopefully, this workshop is the first of a series of technical consultations.
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  9. 9
    055286

    The World Health Organization's work in the area of infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Carballo M

    In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 235-47.

    The work of the WHO in promoting, monitoring, researching, and regulating breastfeeding and infant nutrition is reviewed. WHO has always fostered infant nutrition, but took up the subject of breastfeeding in 1974 at its 27th World Health Assembly with an expression of concern for decline of the practice. Breastfeeding is a learned behavior in humans that must be supported and reinforced: secular factors are converging to decrease breastfeeding in most of the world. The 1974 assembly set up a working group to initiate research, to collect data on infant nutrition and breastfeeding practices, composition of breast milk in different socioeconomic milieu, methods of conducting controlled studies on mortality in relation to feeding, and effects of hormonal contraceptives on lactation. 3 distinct patterns of feeding were found, among the urban poor, economically advantaged, and rural mothers. A 1979 meeting concluded that monitoring of feeding practices is necessary to set up national programs Training workshops were held and instructive materials were developed. Papers presented at the meeting were published. WHO with UNICEF are promoting the health and social status of mothers, such as nutrition, maternity protection, and support of women's organizations. WHO is collaborating with the International Labor Office (ILO) to survey maternity protection in 129 countries. A final issue being addressed is the infant food industry. In 1985, the World Health Assembly reported that the International Code of Marketing, involving labeling, marketing and regulation of infant foods, has been adopted wholly or in part by 141 countries.
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  10. 10
    054532

    The Oslo Declaration. Joint summary of the Oslo Conference on Sustainable Development.

    Brundtland GH; Perez de Cuellar J

    POPULI. 1988; 15(4):50-2.

    Participants in the 1988 Oslo Conference on Sustainable Development explored ways the United Nations system can promote sustainable development by enhancing global economic growth and social development. The deterioration of the environment, and the attendant problems of poverty and resource depletion, demand international cooperation and a new ethic based on equity, human solidarity, and accountability. Priority issues identified by conference participants included the following: developing human resources and fully integrated population policies; protecting the atmosphere and the global climate, ocean, and water resources; halting desertification and countering deforestation; controlling dissemination of dangerous wastes and aiming at the elimination of such toxins; increasing technology cooperation; controlling soil erosion and the loss of species; and securing economic growth, social justice, and a more equitable distribution of income and resources within and among countries as means for alleviating poverty. It was emphasized that poverty alleviation and environmental preservation can be made cost-effective components of development plans and programs and should not be considered as barriers to economic growth.
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  11. 11
    040749

    Energy and protein requirements.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1973. 118 p. (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 52; WHO Technical Report Series No. 522)

    The present Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Ad Hoc Expert Committee met from March 22 to April 2, 1971 to consider energy and protein requirements together and to examine fully this interrelationships so that a diet or a food supply might be assessed simultaneously in terms of its energy and protein content. Its specific tasks were to: examine the characteristics and criteria of the reference man and reference woman; review new data as a basis for revising estimates of requirements and recommended intakes for energy, protein, and essential amino acids; and consider the method of chemical scoring and other methods used in the evaluation of the nutritive value of proteins. The committee was asked to examine the interrelationships between requirements for energy and proteins and to recommend means for the integration of requirement scales for energy and proteins, if that were feasible. Additionally, this committee report includes a discussion of basic concepts, a glossary of terms and units, some background information, as well as identification of practical applications and future research needs. 5 annexes contain: percentiles for weight and height of males and females aged 0-18 years; calculation of the energy values of foods or food groups by the Atwater system; conversion of nitrogen to protein; standard basal metabolic rates of individuals of both sexes; and some values of energy expenditures in everyday activities.
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  12. 12
    201302

    Rural development: a select bibliography, 1987.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1988. v, 133 p. (ESCAP Library Bibliographical Series No. D. 11)

    This 486-item bibliography is compiled from materials selected from the computerized ESCAP Bibliographic Information System data base. The bibliography includes monographs, documents, and serial articles received in the ESCAP Library and the libraries of some other UN agencies during 1987. Contents are arranged under 7 broad subjects widely used among rural development staff and researchers: agriculture; application of science and technology; health and social services; human resources development and institutions; industrial development; physical infrastructure, natural resources and environment; and policies and planning. Author, title, and geographic area indexes appear after the bibliography.
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  13. 13
    200337

    Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle.

    Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 503 p.

    The family is the basic unit of society within which reproductive behavior, socialization patterns, and relations with the community are determined. The concept of the family life cycle provides an important frame of reference for the study of the history of a family traced through its various stages of development. The World Health Organization has developed a comprehensive program relating to the statistical aspects of the interrelationships between health and the family. The main objectives are: 1) to clarify the basic conceptual issues involved and to develop a family life cycle model; 2) to explore the statistical aspects of family-oriented health demography research; 3) to test and apply the methodology to the study of populations at different socioeconomic levels; and 4) to set forth some implications of the findings for social policy, health demography research, and the generation of a database for such studies. Demography research on the family consequences of mortality changes should not be limited to the study of their effect on the size and structure of the family, but should also deal with the impact on the timing of events and the life cycle as a dynamic phenomenon that is subject to change. This publication is from the 1981 Final Meeting on Family Life Cycle Methodology. The background documents fall into 3 main topics: 1) conceptual and methodological issues, 2) review of available evidence on the interaction between mortality and the family life cycle; and 3) case studies.
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  14. 14
    200354

    Mortality and health issues: review of current situation and study guidelines.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1985. iv, 112 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 63.)

    Over the past 3 decades, most of the countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region have witnessed unprecedented declines in mortality--a phenomenon that has resulted in a remarkable increase in their population size. This paper documents the results of an ESCAP and World Health Organization study to analyze the trends and patterns of mortality in the region, taking into consideration the variability in levels and trends, as well as their antecedents and consequences. Long term objectives are: 1) to investigate the dynamics of mortality change by examining mortality trends in relation to other demographic processes, 2) to examine the implication of observed mortality trends and patterns for existing developmental programs, and 3) to provide a scientific basis for the formulation of intervention policies aimed at the reduction of mortality in the region. The advent of vaccines, major public health programs, effective vector control, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutics are the responsible factors for the sustained transition of mortality after the 1940s and 1950s. The study is divided into 3 phases: 1) phase 1 to be completed by late February 1985; 2) phase 2 to be completed by June 1985; and 3) phase 3 to be completed by January 1986. Background papers address the following issues: 1) the implications of mortality trends and patterns for economic, health, and social welfare planning; 2) future outlook of the mortality situation and mortality projections; and 3) methodological aspects of the study of biological and socioeconomic correlates of mortality.
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  15. 15
    038831
    Peer Reviewed

    Excerpts from the WHO Code for the Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    BIRTH. 1985 Winter; 12(4):243-4.

    This article sets forth excerpts from the World Health Organization (WHO) Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that infant formula is not marketed or distributed in ways that interfere with the protection and promotion of breastfeeding. It is specified that informational and educational materials dealing with infant feeding practices should include clear material on the following points: 1) the benefits and superiority of breastfeeding, 2) maternal nutrition in preparation for breastfeeding, 3) the negative effect on breastfeeding of the introduction of partial bottlefeeding, 4) the difficulty of reversing the decision not to breastfeed, and 5) the proper use of infant formula. Materials on infant formula should include the social and financial implications of its use, the health hazards of inappropriate foods, and the health hazards of unnecessary or improper use of infant formula. Donations of educational equipment or materials by manufacturers or distributors of infant formula should be made only at the request of the appropriate government authority and should be distributed only through the health care system. There should be no advertising or other promotion to the general public of infant formula products. Manufacturers should not provide samples of products to pregnant women or mothers, and there should be no point-of-sale advertising or giving of samples or gifts. No health care facility may be used for the purpose of promoting infant formula, and health care workers are expected to encourage and protect breastfeeding. Information provided to health professionals by manufacturers and distributors of infant formula should be restricted to scientific and factual matters and should not imply that bottlefeeding is equivalent or superior to breastfeeding.
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  16. 16
    034877

    Toward 2000: the quest for universal health in the Americas.

    Acuna HR

    Washington, D.C, Pan American Health Organization, 1983. x, 145 p. (Scientific Publication No. 435)

    This document, prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), reviews health in the Americas in the period 1905-47, provides a more detailed assessment of progress in the health sector during the 1970s, and then outlines prospects for the period 1980-2000 in terms of meeting the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The main feature of this goal is its comprehensiveness. Health is no longer viewed as a matter of disease, but as a social outcome of national development. Attainment of this goal demands far-reaching socioeconomic changes, as well as revision of the concepts underlying national health systems. It seems likely that the coming period in Latin America and the Caribbean will be characterized by intense urban concentration and rapid industrialization, with a trend toward increasing heterogeneity. If current development trends continue, the gap in living standards between urban and rural areas will widen due to sharp differences in productivity. Regionally based development planning could raise living standards and reduce inequalities. In the type of development expected, the role of social services is essential. It will be necessary to determine whether the objective is to provide the poor with access to services that are to be available to all or to provide special services for target groups. The primary health care strategy must be applicable to the entire population, not just a limited program to meet the minimal needs of the extreme poor. Pressing issues regarding health services in the next 2 decades include how to extend their coverage, increase and strengthen their operating capacity, improve their planning and evaluation, increase their efficiency, and improve their information systems. Governments and ministries must be part of effective infrastructures in which finance, intersectoral linkages, community participation, and intercountry and hemispheric cooperation have adequate roles. One of PAHO's key activities must be systematic monitoring and evaluation of strategies and plans of action for attaining health for all.
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  17. 17
    034948

    World plan of action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year: a summarized version.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1976. 43 p.

    This booklet's objective is to bring the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year to a wide audience. The 1st section focuses on national action -- overall national policy, national machinery and national legislation, funding, and minimum objectives to be realized by 1980. The 2nd section covers specific areas for national action: international cooperation and the strengthening of international peace; political participation; education and training; employment and related economic roles; health and nutrition; the family in modern society; population; housing and related facilities; and other social questions. The subsequent 4 sections deal with the following: research, data collection and analysis; mass media; international and regional action; and review and appraisal. A major focus of the Plan is to provide guidelines for national action for the 10-year period up to 1985 which the Generaly Assembly, at its 30th session, proclaimed as the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. Its recommendations are addressed primarily to governments and to all public and private institutions, political parties, employers, trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, women's and youth groups and all other groups, and the mass communication media. Governments are urged to establish short, medium, and longterm targets and objectives to implement the Plan. The following are among the objectives envisaged as a minimum to be achieved by 1980: literacy and civic education should be significantly increased, especially among rural women; coeducational, technical, and vocational training should be available in both industrial and rural areas; equal access at every level of education, including compulsory primary school education, should be ensured; employment opportunities should be increased, unemployment reduced, and discriminatory employment conditions should be eliminated; infrastructural services should be established and increased, where necessary, in both rural and urban areas; legislation should be introduced, where necessary, to ensure women of voting and electoral rights, equal legal capacity, and equal employment opportunities and conditions; there should be more women in policymaking positions locally, nationally, and internationally; more comprehensive measures for health education, sanitation, nutrition, family education, family planning, and other welfare services should be provided; and equal exercise of civil, social, and political rights should be guaranteed.
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  18. 18
    033365

    United Nations Children's Fund: report of the Executive Board (15-26 April 1985).

    UNICEF. Executive Board

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. v, 58 p. (Economic and Social Council Official Records, 1985. Supplement No. 10; E/1985/31; E/ICEF/1985/12)

    The major decisions of the UN Children's Fund Executive Board in their 1985 session were to: approve several new program recommendations and endores a major emergency assistance program for several African countries; approve initiatives to accelerate the implementation of child survival and development actions, particularly towards the goal of achieving universal immunization of children against 6 major childhood diseases by 1990; adopt a comprehensive policy framework for UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) programs concerning women; approve UNICEF revised budget estimates for 1984-85 and budget estimates for 1986-87; and make a number of decisions on ways to improve the administration and the role of the Board. The Board members both reported on and heard evidence of the encouraging results of recent efforts to implement national child survival and development programs. Reports of the successful immunization campaigns in Burkina Faso, Colombia, El Salvador, and Nigeria were welcomed, along with the news that half a million children were saved during the year through the use of oral rehydration therapy. Stronger efforts were encouraged to improve results in the areas of breastfeeding and growth monitoring. Implementation issues in connection with child survival and development actions were a continuing focus of Board attention during the session. The accelerated implementation of child survival and development actions was accorded the highest priority in approving the medium-term plan for 1984-88. The Board also adopted a resolution that sought to draw the attention of world leaders, during their observance of the 40th anniversary of the UN, to the importance of reaffirming their commitment to accelerate the implementation of the child survival and development resolution and realizing universal immunization by 1990. Delegations commended the results of the World Health Organization/UNICEF joint nutrition support program but noted that malnutrition among women and children appeared to be increasing. Water supply and sanitation activities were encouraged, and the Board stressed that those actions should be linked with health and hygiene education. The Board endorsed the report on recent UNICEF activities in Africa. Many delegations spoke in support of the increased aid to Africa. Major emphasis was given to linking emergency responses with ongoing UNICEF programs. The Board approved new multi-year commitments from general resources totalling $303,053,422 for 28 country and interregional programs and noted 32 projects totaling $223,215,000 to be funded from specific-purpose contributions. The Board stressed the importance of ensuring that child survival and development actions were integrated with continuing efforts in other of UNICEF action. The Board approved a commitment of $252,550,443 for the budget for the biennium 1986-87.
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  19. 19
    030026

    Development, life-styles, population and environment in Latin America.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 403-32. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    Relying on empirical work done by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), this paper illustrates how the demographic dynamics of Latin America in the last 2 decades and the environmental problems being faced by the people of the region are related to the specific productive structures and consumption patterns which, to different degrees depending on the country, prevailed during that time and are now even more widespread in Latin America. Analysis of the population/styles of development/life styles/environment relationships in Latin America provides some useful guidelines for future action in the field. The dominance of a development style in which transnational corporations play a key role demonstrates that many apparently local manifestations of the problems of population, resources, environment, and development have their cause elsewhere, in distant centers or decision making, or in a process triggered by someone else. A critical part of the interplay of these relationships in future years is likely to occur in the industrialized countries. This is so because of the global reach of many of their domestic and international policies and also because they act as centers which diffuse worldwide patterns and systems of production and consumption, transnational life styles, technologies, and so forth. What occurs in the developing countries is not likely to have such great influence worldwide, though in many instances it will be of critical importance for their domestic development. Everywhere, integrated/systems thinking, planning, policy, and decision making are a prerequisite for dealing with these interrelationships. In this context, different specific population policies will have a critical role to play. The remaining problem is that decision makers still need to learn how to think and act in an integrated and systematic manner. The gap between the desired schemes, models, and plans and the real world tends to be considerable. There are a number of things that could be undertaken internationally and by the UN system to fill the gap, and these are identified.
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  20. 20
    030023

    Interrelationships between population, resources, environment and development.

    UNESCO

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 351-8. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program within the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) offers an ideal framework for pilot projects to study, at a microscale, the complicated interrelationships that exist between an area's population problems and its developmental and environmental problems. An underlying reason for initiating the MAB was the evidence that the pressures of population growth and movement and the demands of development had placed stress on human/environment relationships. A 1st pilot project was carried out in Fiji on population-resources-environment interrelations during 1974-77. The main objectives were to reduce gaps in existing knowledge, to elaborate a set of reference information and guidelines for planners, decision makers and research workers, and to develop further the methodological tools needed for tackling problems in this area. In light of the Fiji experience, the collaboration of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and UNESCO has continued with the implementation of a 2nd-stage project on population, development, and environment interactions in the eastern Caribbean (1979-81). The 2 MAB pilot projects can be regarded as 2 successful efforts which advanced knowledge and methodology in general, but the task of building up a vast program of similar studies covering an array representative of the major environmental and development conditions in the 3rd world still needs to be tackled. Planning for a longer range future provides for action which may not be justifiable in the context of short-term planning. Such action includes the allocation of heavy initial investments to build up the infrastructure necessary for ensuring a sustainable energy system or to provide for ecological stability and the husbanding of natural resources to ensure the sustainable productive capacity of renewable resources. It is necessary to develop integrative approaches and to consider sociocultural factors in development planning. Considerations of a conceptual and methodological nature are identified.
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  21. 21
    030020

    Population, resources and development.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 267-92. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The 1st section of this paper devoted to population, resources, and development broadly delineates for countries the physiological limits of land to support human populations according to pressure on resources. Subsequent sections examine the impact which an abatement of population growth could have by the year 2000 on resources in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector of developing countries in particular, link poverty to malnutrition, and deal with 1 specific aspect of the relation between distribution and undernutrition. The purpose of the final section is to highlight certain issues of the "food-feed competition" which requires more attention in the future. The frailty of the balance between population and resources is a basic concern of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. FAO's purpose is to promote agricultural and rural development and to contribute to the improvement of people's nutritional level. The significant characteristics of the FAO work on "potential population supporting capacity of lands" are the improved soil and climatic data from which it starts and the explicit specification of the assumptions made about technology, inputs, and nutritional intake requirements. Both the carrying capacity project and the results of "Agriculture: Toward 2000" have emphasized the importance of the role that technology will play in world agriculture in the future. Yet, technology is not free and its cost should be compared to alternative solutions. Moving people -- migration -- is an option that suggests itself in relation to the carrying capacity project. Changes in certain institutions, including land reform, size of the farm, market systems, pricing regimes are more suggestions that may arise with respect "Agriculture: Toward 2000" and to the food-feed competition. The ultimate question continues to be whether high agricultural technology is feasible on a world agricultural scale without dire environmental and other effects.
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  22. 22
    030199

    Desertification: a question of linkages.

    Stiles D

    Mazingira. 1985; 8(4):32-3.

    Desertification threatens 35% of the earth's land surface and 19% of the world's population. Each year, 60,000 sq km of land are reduced to desert-like conditions. Of the world's drylands, 60% has already been affected by the desertification process. The direct cost of desertification in the form of loss in agricultural production has been estimated at US$26 billion/year. To halt and perhaps reverse the desertification process, the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) formulated a comprehensive Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD) in 1977. However, there has been little progress in implementing the 28 recommendations contained within the PACD. Less than US$50,000, none of it from developed countries, has been raised toward the US$90 billion needed over a 20-year period. Developed nations prefer to give assistance through bilateral aid agreements that allow them to secure secondary benefits such as contracts, employment, and political influence. Another problem involves policies within the affected countries. Environmental programs tend not to be awarded high priority because of their lack of quick visual evidence of results. Government leaders must be convinced that desertification is a steady process that is robbing their lands of productive capabilities and increasing economic dependence on outside sources of support. A national machinery and institutional support to coordinate national action must be established. This requires development of a national plan of action to combat desertification, in which a detailed assessment is made of a country's desertification problems, priority projects are identified, and the institutional support to organize and coordinate the national plan is outlined. The United Nations Environment Program is prepared to assist any developing country in the preparation of such plans.
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  23. 23
    030198

    The population growth and desertification crisis.

    Milas S

    Mazingira. 1985; 8(4):28-31.

    Desertification is a result of overexploitation of the land through overcultivation, overgrazing, deforestation, and poor irrigation practices. This process is a result of the growing imbalance between population, resources, environment, and development. The principle problem causing desertification is not population increase per se; rather, it is due to mismanagement of the land. However, rapidly increasing population densities in the drylands of Africa, Asia, and Latin America have upset the former balance upon which subsistence agriculture depended, including long fallow periods to allow the land to regain its fertility. Arable land for the world as a whole is projected to decrease from its 1975 level of .31 ha/person to .15 ha/person by the year 2000. Population increases in the remaining croplands are expected to produce further encroachment on rangelands and forests and increased ecologic degradation, in turn producing further population pressure, poverty, land degradation, and desertification. The basic need is for better resource utilization. Halting desertification requires the restoration of the balance between man and land. Development, good resource management, and use of appropriate technologic advances are key factors. There is also a crucial need for each country to relate its population policy to its resource base and development plans. Population increase cannot continue indefinitely without regard for the realities of resources, development, and the environment.
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  24. 24
    027533

    No development without grass-roots action.

    Grant JP

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 2:66-7.

    UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) experience over the last 20 years suggests that successful development for poor people is not possible without substantial grassroots involvement. This is the experience both in the developing and in industrialized countries. In the 1960s it became increasingly clear to UNICEF that if programs were to succeed with the small and landless farmers and the urban slum dwellers, there was no possibility of finding enough money to meet needs of these people through governmental channels. It was equally clear that in most places the existing patterns of development andeconomic growth would not reach these people until the year 2000 or thereabots. It was this that led UNICEF to adopt its basic services approach in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which implied that the cost of the most needed basic health services, education, and water had to be reduced to manageable limits. At this stage UNICEF began to articulate the imperative of using paraprofessionals, the need for much greater use of technology that was appropriate to rural and slum areas, and the importance of involving the people in this effort. Looking at those low income countries which have managed to achieve longer life expectancy and higher literacy rates, they are all societies which have practiced much more people's participation in economic and social activities than most other countries. These 3 very different societies -- China, South Korea, and Sri Lanka -- all have had a rather unique degree of people's participation in the development process. Grassroots participation in development is a very important element in developing and in industrial countries. 1 example concerns the whole question of proper nutrition practices, the promotion of breastfeeding, and the problem of the infant formula code. It was the people's groups which picked up the research results in the 1960s, which showed that breastfeeding was a better and more nutritious way of feeding children. The 2nd example pertains to the US government recommendation of significant cuts in UNDP and UNICEF, and the refusal of Congress to give in to those cuts. In regard to the developing countries, over the last year it has increasingly become the consensus of international experts that a childrens' health revolutioon is possible. The conclusion was based upon the fact that there were 2 new sets of developments coming together that created this new opportunity: some new technological advances in the development of rural rehydration therapy; and the capacity to communicate with poor people. With the whole emphasis on the basic human needs of the last 10 years, and on primary health care in the last 5 years, literally millions of health auxiliaries and community workers have been trained, a group of people who, if a country can mobilize them, can provide a new form of access.
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  25. 25
    026268

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
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