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In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1988. v, 133 p. (ESCAP Library Bibliographical Series No. D. 11)This 486-item bibliography is compiled from materials selected from the computerized ESCAP Bibliographic Information System data base. The bibliography includes monographs, documents, and serial articles received in the ESCAP Library and the libraries of some other UN agencies during 1987. Contents are arranged under 7 broad subjects widely used among rural development staff and researchers: agriculture; application of science and technology; health and social services; human resources development and institutions; industrial development; physical infrastructure, natural resources and environment; and policies and planning. Author, title, and geographic area indexes appear after the bibliography.
Targets for health for all. Targets in support of the European regional strategy for health for all.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office of Europe, 1985. x, 201 p.This book sets out the fundamental requirements for people to be healthy, to define the improvements in health that can be realized by the year 2000 for the peoples of the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), and to propose action to secure those improvements. Its purposes are as follows: propose improvements in the health of the people in order to achieve health for all by the year 2000; indicate where action is called for, the extent of the collective effort required, and the lines along which it should be directed; provide a tool for countries and the Region to Monitor progress toward the goal and revise their course of action if necessary. The targets proposed are intended to indicate the improvements that could be expected if all the will, knowledge, resources, and technology already available were pooled in the pursuit of a common goal. The target levels set are based on historical trends in the fields concerned, their expected future evolution, and the knowledge available on the probable effects of intervention. These levels are intended to inspire and motivate Member States when they are determining their own priorities, targets, and capabilities and thus the degree to which they can contribute to reaching the regional targets. The base year for all the targets in 1980. The year 2000 is the completion data retained for all targets related to health improvements. Targets related to lifestyles, the environment and care respectively have 1990 or 1995 as their date of completion unless specific problems justify the allocation of a later year. Targets embodying measures to bring about the changes in research and health development support should be reached before 1990. The aim is to give people a positive sense of health so that they can make full use of their physical, mental, and emotional capacities. A well informed, well motivated, and actively participating community is a key element to the attainment of the common goal. The focus of the health care system should be on primary health care -- meeting the basic health needs of each community through services provided as close as possible to where people live and work, readily accessible and acceptable to all, and based on full community participation. Health problems transcend national frontiers.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 403-32. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)Relying on empirical work done by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), this paper illustrates how the demographic dynamics of Latin America in the last 2 decades and the environmental problems being faced by the people of the region are related to the specific productive structures and consumption patterns which, to different degrees depending on the country, prevailed during that time and are now even more widespread in Latin America. Analysis of the population/styles of development/life styles/environment relationships in Latin America provides some useful guidelines for future action in the field. The dominance of a development style in which transnational corporations play a key role demonstrates that many apparently local manifestations of the problems of population, resources, environment, and development have their cause elsewhere, in distant centers or decision making, or in a process triggered by someone else. A critical part of the interplay of these relationships in future years is likely to occur in the industrialized countries. This is so because of the global reach of many of their domestic and international policies and also because they act as centers which diffuse worldwide patterns and systems of production and consumption, transnational life styles, technologies, and so forth. What occurs in the developing countries is not likely to have such great influence worldwide, though in many instances it will be of critical importance for their domestic development. Everywhere, integrated/systems thinking, planning, policy, and decision making are a prerequisite for dealing with these interrelationships. In this context, different specific population policies will have a critical role to play. The remaining problem is that decision makers still need to learn how to think and act in an integrated and systematic manner. The gap between the desired schemes, models, and plans and the real world tends to be considerable. There are a number of things that could be undertaken internationally and by the UN system to fill the gap, and these are identified.