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  1. 1

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  2. 2

    After Mexico: NGOs and the follow-up to the International Conference on Population. Summary report of the Fourth Annual NGO/UNFPA Consultation on Population in New York (March 6, 1985).

    Cassidy K

    New York, New York, UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 1985. 50 p.

    This Summary Report of the Fourth Annual Nongovernmental Organizations/UN Fund for Population Activities (NGO/UNFPA) contains the following: an opening statement of David Poindexter, Director, Communication Centre of the Population Institute; a presentation devoted to opportunities for action by Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary General, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); a discussion of global population realities by Sheldon Segal, Director, Population Sciences of the Rockefeller Foundation; panel discussions on the topic of patterns of NGO action; reports from workshop groups (environment, development and population; role and status of women; health and population; reproduction and the family; population policies and funding; population and children; population and youth; and population and aging); a report on financing global population programs, given by Barbara Hertz, Senior Economist, World Bank; discussion of the implementation of the Mexico mandate, Rafael M. Salas, Under Secretary-General of the UN and Executive Director of the UNFPA; recommendations of the Mexico City Conference which refer to the NGO role in followup; and some background material. Recommendations of the workshop groups for ongoing NGO action in the field of population include: linkages between environment, development, and population to be more carefully delineated; the need for the voice of women to be heard at all levels by those formulating population policies and for the status of women to be considered by all as essential to the population issue; couples to be offered a full range of contraceptive choices; all family members to have access to reproductive health information, sex education, and family planning services; organizations to look for multiple sources of funding and to become less reliant on a single source of funding for population and health related activities; support of programs which promote women's development; governments to prepare youth better for their roles within their own countries; and the leadership role of the elderly to be facilitated and utilized in the areas of education, communication, and influencing policies at the village, regional, national, and international level.
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  3. 3

    Development, life-styles, population and environment in Latin America.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 403-32. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    Relying on empirical work done by the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA), this paper illustrates how the demographic dynamics of Latin America in the last 2 decades and the environmental problems being faced by the people of the region are related to the specific productive structures and consumption patterns which, to different degrees depending on the country, prevailed during that time and are now even more widespread in Latin America. Analysis of the population/styles of development/life styles/environment relationships in Latin America provides some useful guidelines for future action in the field. The dominance of a development style in which transnational corporations play a key role demonstrates that many apparently local manifestations of the problems of population, resources, environment, and development have their cause elsewhere, in distant centers or decision making, or in a process triggered by someone else. A critical part of the interplay of these relationships in future years is likely to occur in the industrialized countries. This is so because of the global reach of many of their domestic and international policies and also because they act as centers which diffuse worldwide patterns and systems of production and consumption, transnational life styles, technologies, and so forth. What occurs in the developing countries is not likely to have such great influence worldwide, though in many instances it will be of critical importance for their domestic development. Everywhere, integrated/systems thinking, planning, policy, and decision making are a prerequisite for dealing with these interrelationships. In this context, different specific population policies will have a critical role to play. The remaining problem is that decision makers still need to learn how to think and act in an integrated and systematic manner. The gap between the desired schemes, models, and plans and the real world tends to be considerable. There are a number of things that could be undertaken internationally and by the UN system to fill the gap, and these are identified.
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  4. 4

    Population, resources and environment and prospects for socio-economic development.

    Mangahas M

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
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  5. 5

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
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  6. 6

    World population increase: our dangerous opportunity.

    Tolba MK

    [Unpublished] 1984. 19 p.

    In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, Mostafa K Tolba, Executive Director of The United Nations (UN) Evnironment Program, urges the Conference to recommend 3 measures: 1) identification of critical areas of ecologic and social stress; 2) development and implementation of situation-specific population policies in the context of the interrelationships between resources, the environment, people, and development; and 3) strengthening of the interrelationships approach of the UN system through greater priority to the implementation of the Program of Work on Interrelationships established by the UN General Assembly. It is asserted that increased population size combined with resources mismanagement to destroy the web of life that supports the economies of UN member states. Deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, air and water pollution reflect the strain that has been placed on resources and natural systems. Population policies must address both the vast differences in resource use and the issue of sustainable resource management. Resource misuse leads to deterioration of the invironment, which in turn represents the nonsustainability of the process of development and hence undermines the meeting of the population's needs and aspirations. Each of the 4 system components--resources, people, environment, and development--affects and is affected by the other 3. The task of providing basic needs while preserving the sustainability of the resource base is seriously undermined by rapid population growth. Family planning can make a major contribution to social and economic development. A massive untapped demand for fertility control has been demonstrated and the major world religions all support the concept of responsible parenthood. A more active approach to family planning requires, however, that governments plan for the longterm. It is hoped that the 2nd World Population Conference will generate a new willingness to tackle world population increase--our dangerous opportunity.
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  7. 7

    Breast-feeding and family planning policy.

    Balasubrahmanyan V

    Economic and Political Weekly. 1983 Dec 10; 18(50):2099.

    This article summarizes World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on breastfeeding issued in 1982 and discusses their policy implications for India. The WHO document notes that early use of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) after childbirth may both decrease breast milk production and cause women to abandon the pill, denying them the contraceptive protection they would have had if lactation had proceeded uninterrupted. The WHO paper further notes the possible adverse effects on infants exposed to synthetic sex steroids secreted in the breast milk of users of hormonal contraception. This suggests that family planning programs should consider the special needs of breastfeeding women in determining the contraceptive methods to be promoted. Grassroots family planning wokers are in special need of intensive instruction in this area. WHO additionally calls for social and health support systems which encourage breastfeeding and urges that such initiatives form an integral component of family planning programs. WHO's emphasis on breastfeeding as a means of averting births rather than strictly as a means of improving child health is expected to attract the interest of policymakers.
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