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Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
[Operational sequence for the implementation of a subregional food and nutrition strategy] Secuencia operativa para la implementacion de una estrategia subregional de alimentacion y nutricion.
In: Lineamientos de una estrategia Andina de alimentacion y nutricion [by] Junta del Acuerdo de Cartegena. Grupo de Politica Technologica. Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos. Lima, Peru, Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena, Grupo de Politica Technologica, Proyectos Andinos de Desarollo Technologico en el Area de los Alimentos, 1983. 143-74.This article outlines and diagrams a recommended operational sequence for implementation of food and nutrition strategy for the Andean region. The multisectorial strategy envisioned by the planners would involve the supply and demand for foods; basic health, environmental sanitation and educational services; and food information and technology. The integrated, multisectorial nature of the strategy requires policies, plans, and programming designed to facilitate harmonious development of all the necessary elements within the 5 Andean countries. The proposed methodology for operationalizing the strategy is based on a systems focus which covers all aspects of production, processing, distribution, final consumption, and technoeconomic policies for food and nutrition. Because the food and nutrition strategy is more than a production program, its design should identify interrelations between the availability and prices of foods, external commerce, industrial trends, food commerce and distribution, and food consumption in adquate quantities by the entire population. A basic service component for health should also be included for the Andean population because of its relationship to nutritional aspects. The suggested instrument for operationalizing the systems focus is the "Methodology for Evaluation andprogramming of Technological and Economic Development of Production and Consumption Systems" developed by the Andean Projects for Technological Development Food Group for the Group for Technological Policy of the Cartagena Accord. The methodology consists of a manual and a "Model of Numerical Experimentation", which permits identification of system components, calculation and evaluation of relevant aspects of each production factor, and design and selection of development alternatives. The Model of Numerical Experimentation" allows simulation of goals for satisfaction of needs, exports of final products, import substitution, different production technologies, commercial margins, subidies, customs duties, taxes and exchange rates and related variables. Various food production systems have already been studied using the methodology in each of the 5 Andean countries. It is recommended that implementation of aspects of the food and nutrition strategy involving food production and consumption proceed in 8 operational sequences: 1) characterization of the current industrial, agroindustrial, and fishing economy 2) identification and selection of basic foods and/or strategies 3) representation and quantification of each of the selected systems 4) evaluation of each system and intersystem relationship 5) identification and selection of systems of production of alternative foodstuffs 6) proposal for a national and regional food system 7) concerted development programming for the regional food system and 8) design of mechanisms of evaluation and follow-up.