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  1. 1

    Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.

    World Resources Institute; World Conservation Union [IUCN]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; UNESCO

    Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.

    Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
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  2. 2

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  3. 3

    Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.

    Israel. Ministry of Health

    Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.

    Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
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  4. 4

    Breastfeeding as an intervention within diarrhea diseases control programs: WHO/CDD activities.

    Hogan R; Martines J

    In: Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on Health Care Practices Related to Breastfeeding, December 7-9, 1988, Leavey Conference Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., edited by Miriam Labbok and Margaret McDonald with Mark Belsey, Peter Greaves, Ted Greiner, Margaret Kyenkya-Isabirye, Chloe O'Gara, James Shelton. [Washington, D.C., Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, 1988]. 13 p.. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program (CDD) is seeking ways to prevent diarrhea and has identified breastfeeding as an important factor. CDD has developed activities in both its research and services components. In the research component, results from recent studies, some of which received support from the program, have shown the strong protective effect of breastfeeding against diarrheal morbidity and mortality. Exclusively breastfed infants are at lower risk of experiencing diarrhea than infants who are partially breastfed, and those who are partially breastfed are at lower risk than those who are not breastfed. Breastfeeding, which also may reduce the severity of the diarrheal illness, has a powerful effect on the risk of diarrhea-associated death. CDD's priorities for research support in the area of infant feeding were reviewed at an April 1988 meeting. Further research that the program feels is needed falls into 2 broad categories: trials of hospital and community-based interventions that aim to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the 1st 4-6 months of life; and evaluation of approaches for implementing tested breastfeeding promotion interventions in the context of national diarrheal disease control programs. CDD's services component has as its basic responsibility collaboration with countries in developing national control programs. It applies the results of research and involves activities in planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS) supply, training, communication, monitoring, and evaluation. It is in the area of training that specific recommendations on breastfeeding have been made. These recommendations are outlined. The training courses are being used to train approximately 5000 supervisory and management staff a year. The program plans to monitor the effectiveness of the training and develop future activities based on that information.
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  5. 5

    The World Health Organization's work in the area of infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    Carballo M

    In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 235-47.

    The work of the WHO in promoting, monitoring, researching, and regulating breastfeeding and infant nutrition is reviewed. WHO has always fostered infant nutrition, but took up the subject of breastfeeding in 1974 at its 27th World Health Assembly with an expression of concern for decline of the practice. Breastfeeding is a learned behavior in humans that must be supported and reinforced: secular factors are converging to decrease breastfeeding in most of the world. The 1974 assembly set up a working group to initiate research, to collect data on infant nutrition and breastfeeding practices, composition of breast milk in different socioeconomic milieu, methods of conducting controlled studies on mortality in relation to feeding, and effects of hormonal contraceptives on lactation. 3 distinct patterns of feeding were found, among the urban poor, economically advantaged, and rural mothers. A 1979 meeting concluded that monitoring of feeding practices is necessary to set up national programs Training workshops were held and instructive materials were developed. Papers presented at the meeting were published. WHO with UNICEF are promoting the health and social status of mothers, such as nutrition, maternity protection, and support of women's organizations. WHO is collaborating with the International Labor Office (ILO) to survey maternity protection in 129 countries. A final issue being addressed is the infant food industry. In 1985, the World Health Assembly reported that the International Code of Marketing, involving labeling, marketing and regulation of infant foods, has been adopted wholly or in part by 141 countries.
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  6. 6

    Return to breastfeeding in the United Kingdom: reasons, implementation, and prospects.

    Darke S

    In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E.F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 94-100.

    The Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) in the UK established a Working Party of practicing pediatricians, midwives, and health visitors in June 1973 for the purpose of reviewing the then present-day practice in infant feeding. Published in 1974, the Report added an influential and important stimulus to the return to breastfeeding in the UK. The Report acknowledged to manufacturers that due to new technology the composition of artificial milk feeds more closely resembled that of human milk but stressed that the hazards to health for babies were largely due to the dissimilarities between even modified cows' milk feeds and human milk. There also were many different infant milk products on the market, resulting in a problem of choice for the mother and her professional advisors. Due to the fact that instructions for making up a feed varied from product to product, it was understandable that mistakes were made. The Working Party was convinced that an adequate volume of breast milk meant satisfactory growth and development and recommended that all mothers be encouraged to breastfeed. Further, recommendations for the encouragement of breastfeeding covered many aspects of education. The mass media were recognized as an important educational resource which could emphasize the advantages of breastfeeding. Another group of recommendations referred to artificial milk feeds; all such feeds were to approximate in composition as nearly as possible to human milk. Other recommendations advised against the introduction of solid foods before about 4 months of age and against the addition of sugar and salt to solid foods in the infant's diet. The remaining recommendations covered further research into the principles and practice of infant feeding, a review of legislation concerning the composition of artificial infant milk foods, and the collection of national statistics about infant feeding practice. In regard to implementation, recommendations about education are being put into effect slowly and steadily. The government has endorsed fully the aim and principles of a World Health Organization Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes, which was adopted in May 1981 by an overwhelming majority at the World Health Assembly. The Code emphasizes the importance of breastfeeding. As attitudes and prejudices die hard, continued education of those in the caring professions and the public is necessary.
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  7. 7

    Growing up in a changing world. Part two: youth organizations and family life education: ideas into action.

    Fordham J

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Programme Development Dept., 1985. 107 p.

    This publication, Part 2 of "Growing up in a Changing World," was produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation at the request of the Informal Working Group on Family Life Education. It provides practical guidelines for organizations that want to incorporate family life education into their program. Whereas Part 1 focused on the concept of family life education, Part 2 provides concrete material on training and project activities. A basic training program for youth leaders should include specific content areas in family life education and the use of participatory learning methods so leaders can organize educational activities for other young people in the community. The training should cover the communication process and give youth leaders practice in organizing group discussions. Project planning, management, and evaluation are also important aspects of leadership training. The activities suggested in this publication are all participatory in approach and based on the belief that people learn best through activities in which their own knowledge and experience are valued. The descriptions of activities include the following components: introduction, objectives, materials, time, preparation, and procedure. Of importance is assessment of the suitability of these sample activities for use with specific groups of young people. In considering suitability, 3 factors should be kept in mind: 1) there may be opposition by parents or religious leaders to subjects concerned with sex education and family planning, and ways should be sought to overcome this resistance; 2) activities must be appropriate to the learning abilities, characteristics, and circumstances of the target population; and 3) speical care is needed when developing or adapting activities for use with young people who are illiterate.
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  8. 8

    IPPF involvement in the International Youth Year: a progress report.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [London, England], IPPF, 1986 Jan 31. 5, 13 p.

    This report provides a brief description of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) involvement in and contributions to International Youth Year (IYY). IYY reinforced an IPPF priority program area for the 1980s--meeting the needs of young people--and all member family planning associations were encouraged to establish links with IYY national coordinating committees. IPPF was also instrumental in the formation of a nongovernmental Working Group on Family Life Education comprised of representatives from a range of organizations involved in youth work and is preparing a resource book on family life education for these groups. The guidelines for action for IYY, prepared by a United Nations Advisory Committee in which IPPF was a major participant, urge governments to promote culturally appropriate family life education, encourage young people and their organizations to be active in the implementation of population programs, promote social policies to strengthen the family, encourage community education to counteract adolescent pregnancy, and ensure that family life and sex education are available to young people. Where necessary, family planning information and services can be made available to adolescents within a country's sociocultural context. There is a need to sustain the global interst in youth concerns generated by IYY and to translate into action the recommendations and resolutions on youth that were developed. It is essential that such action consider factors such as the promotion and protection of the rights and responsibilities of young people, sensitivity to local traditions, identification and mobilization of local resources, interagency cooperation, and involvement of young people in decision making. The document concludes with progress reports from 30 countries on family planning association activities in support of IYY.
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  9. 9

    The Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas: a review.

    Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 1985; 19(3):307-14.

    The basis for the Pan America Health Organization/World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is provided by a resolution (WHA27.57) adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 1974. The program's longterm objectives include: to reduce morbidity and mortality from diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis by providing immunization services directed against those disease for every child in the world by 1990; to promote countries' self-reliance in the delivery of immunization services within the context of comprehensive health services; and to promote regional self-reliance in matters of vaccine production and quality control. The EPI, which requires a longterm commitment to continued immunization activities, is an essential element of PAHO/WHO's strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000. Immunization coverage has been included among the indicators which will be used to monitor the success of that strategy at regional and global levels. As of April 1985, available country reports showed that immunization coverage in the Americas had improved considerably since the EPI was launched in 1977. In 1978, for example, only a very small proportion of the children under 1 year of age (less than 10%) outside the US and Canada lived in countr ies where 50% immunization coverage with the EPI vaccines had been attained for this age group. By 1984, over 55% of these children were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with DPT and measles vaccines had been attained, and over 80% were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with polio vaccine had been attained. Immunization coverage generally improved between 1980-84, especially in the 12 smaller countries of the subregion with populations of less than 130,000. In the period since EPI training activities were initiated in early 1979 through the end of 1984, it is estimated that at least 15,000 health workers attended EPI workshops. Over 12,000 EPI training modules were distributed in the Region. In 1983 and 1984, the Cold Chain Regional Focal Point held special training workshops on cold chain equipment maintenance and repair in Bolivia, Colombia, and Nicaragua; technicians were also trained in Brazil. In Northern America, Canada, the US, and Mexico have the ability to produce all the EPI vaccines, and the first 2 are self-sufficient. Most countries have made notable strides in improving and expanding the cold chain, although cold chain failures have been identified through investigation of vaccine failures. During its 6 years of operation, PAHO's EPI Revolving Fund has placed vaccine orders worth over US$19 million. At present, all countries in the region are receiving adequate quantities of vaccines to cover their target populations.
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  10. 10

    Tobacco--its role in the economy and the health of African countries.

    Who Chronicle. 1985; 39(3):104-6.

    In Africa the issue of smoking and health is complicated by the fact that in many countries tobacco is grown commercially and is relied upon to bring in foreign exchange through export, of revenue for the government if sold on the home market. Consequently, in some nations the ministries of health and of agriculture are working at cross purposes. This contradiction is recognized in the report issued recently of a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on smoking and health organized for English-speaking Member States of the WHO African Region, and held in Zambia. In opening the seminar, the prime minister of Zambia, Mr. N. Mundia, stated that governments had an obligation to educate people on the risks involved in the use of tobacco but that this could pose a moral dilemma where tobacco production made an apparently significant contribution to the economy. Additionally, he warned that developing countries are considered valuable markets by tobacco companies and stressed that if the promotion of tobacco products by such companies represented a threat "to the health of our people, we cannot let it happen." This point was endorsed by Mr. W.C. Mwambazi, the National WHO Program Coordinator who stated that smoking was on the increase in many developing countries as a result of unscrupulous marketing practices by cigarette manufacturers and that smoking was a major threat to the realization of health for all by the year 2000. Aspects of smoking and health that have special relevance for Africa are emphasized in the report. The few studies carried out in Africa tend to confirm findings from the developed world that smoking increases the risk of cancer and coronary heart disease. Not only is tobacco smoked in Africa, but it is chewed and taken as snuff, and these uses also entail a risk to health. Case studies included in the report show that transnational tobacco companies take full advantage of the present lack of legislation in most African countries on the promotion and use of tobacco. Health hazards are the primary reason why smoking controls are needed, but there are also economic arguments. Tobacco cultivation requires land that could otherwise be used for the production of much needed food. Curing tobacco leaves requires vast amounts of heat that is generated by burning either expensive (and usually imported) oil or timber, the consumption of which ultimately leads to deforestation, soil erosion, and desertification. Although tobacco may be cultivated primarily as an export crop, the country of origin rarely escapes the health hazards of smoking and their economic consequences, including increased cost of health care and absenteeism from work. According to the report, control measures should include the following: data collection; public information and education; and legislation. The report proposes that a functional committee on smoking control be established in the ministry of health to work especially within the primary health care machinery.
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  11. 11

    Population, resources and environment and prospects for socio-economic development.

    Mangahas M

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
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  12. 12

    General overview. A. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 63-95. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The acceptance by the international community of the importance of the interrelations between population, resources, environment, and development has been in large measure an outgrowth of the search for development alternatives that would reduce the disparities between developed and developing countries and ameliorate poverty within countries. Possibly the most important task of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development is to identify more clearly the role of population within these interrelationships, i.e., to identify through which mechanisms population characteristics condition and are conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the developmental structure. To a considerable extent the incidence of poverty forms the root cause of many of the problems derived from the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development in developing countries. Affluence appears to be the major cause of many of the environmental and resource problems in the developed countries. The first 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security, and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns, which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The discussion of environment as a provider of resources first considers supplies of minerals, energy, and water. Attention is then directed to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and which may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization, and waterlogging. Another section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning. In the formulation of longterm development objectives, population can no longer be regarded as an exogenous force, but rather becomes an endogenous variable which affects and is affected by development policies, programs, and plans.
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