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  1. 1

    21 issues for the 21st century: Result of the UNEP Foresight Process on Emerging Environmental Issues.

    United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 2012. [60] p.

    The purpose of the UNEP Foresight Process is to produce, every two years, a careful and authoritative ranking of the most important emerging issues related to the global environment. UNEP aims to inform the UN and wider international community about these issues on a timely basis, as well as provide input to its own work programme and that of other UN agencies, thereby fulfilling the stipulation of its mandate: “keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action”. This report is the outcome of that process and presents the identified issues titled: 21 Issues for the 21st Century. These issues cut across all major global environmental themes including food production and food security; cities and land use; biodiversity, fresh water and marine; climate change and energy, technology and waste issues. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Population, resources and the environment: struggling towards sustainability.

    Hinrichsen D

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 175-188.

    This analysis looks at the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA's) work in the area of population-environment-development linkages. It then analyses the collective effects of 6 billion people, their consumption patterns, and resource use trends, in six different critical resource areas. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Agrobiodiversity strategies to combat food insecurity and HIV / AIDS impact in rural Africa. Advancing grassroots responses for nutrition, health and sustainable livelihoods. Preliminary edition.

    Gari JA

    Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], 2003. [154] p.

    This strategy paper has been developed in the framework of the FAO Population and Development Service (SDWP), under the support and lead of Marcela Villarreal (SDWP Chief). The paper aims at stimulating grassroots action for household food, nutrition and livelihood security in rural Africa, placing special emphasis on the evolving needs owing to the HIV/AIDS crisis. For the elaboration of the proposed strategies, the author carried out a specific FAO field mission to Uganda and Tanzania, as well as supplementary fieldwork in Ethiopia and Mali, in September-December 2001. (author's)
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  4. 4

    The "Earth Summit" on population.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED], (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Sep; 18(3):571-82.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Earth Summit, took place June 3-14, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The majority of the 172 countries were represented by heads of state, making this the largest-ever gathering of world leaders. The conference offered the following legally binding conventions for signature: a treaty aimed at preventing global climate change through controlling man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, and a treaty aimed at preventing the eradication of biologically diverse species and protecting flora and fauna. Each was signed by 153 countries at the conference. The US, however, failed to sign the treaty on biodiversity out of concern that provisions in the treaty would unduly restrict the biotechnology industry in that country. The treaty on climate change specifies a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 as an objective to be met voluntarily. The convention on biological diversity requires that countries adopt a variety of regulatory measures aimed at conserving biological resources. The summit also adopted several nonbinding documents. For example, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development outlines 27 principles which express a commitment to improving the environment, while Agenda 21 is a lengthy and detailed blueprint discussing how individual countries and the world as a whole can achieve in the next century environmentally sound development. Population issues were not central in any of the Rio documents, but were given significant attention in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. The full text of the Rio Declaration as well as the preamble and chapter five of Agenda 21 on demographic dynamics and sustainability are reproduced.
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  5. 5

    Appendix 2: Sources of information on environment and development.

    Neefjes K

    In: Environments and livelihoods: strategies for sustainability, by Koos Neefjes. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 2000. 221-8. (Development Guidelines)

    This appendix of the book, "Environments and Livelihoods: Strategies for Sustainability", presents sources of information on environment and development. It notes that with the Internet as an extremely useful source of information, UN agencies and some of the development banks have set up Web sites for specific country programs. Annotated listings of Web sites of multilateral organizations, organizations on research and information, and nongovernmental organizations on environment and development are enumerated in this paper. Most of the Web sites listed provide links to other sites. Lastly, Web sites of publishers who specialize in environment and other development issues are also provided in this appendix.
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  6. 6

    Convention on Biological Diversity.

    United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Jun 5 [50] p. (Na.92-7807)

    This paper presents the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity of the UN Environment Program of June 5, 1992. The objectives of the Convention were 1) the conservation of biological diversity; 2) the sustainable use of its components; and 3) the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. Articles 2 through 42 focus on the following areas: use of terms, principle, jurisdictional scope, cooperation, general measures for conservation and sustainable use, identification and monitoring, in-situ conservation, ex-situ conservation, sustainable use of the components of biological diversity, incentive measures, research and training, public education and awareness, impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts, access to genetic resources, access to and transfer of technology, exchange of information, technical and scientific cooperation, handling of biotechnology and distribution of benefits, financial resources and mechanism, relationship with other international conventions, conference of the parties, secretariat, subsidiary body on scientific, reports, settlement of disputes, adoption of protocols, adoption and amendment of annexes, right to vote, relationship between the convention, signature, ratification, acceptance or approval, accession, entry into force, reservations, withdrawals, financial interim arrangements, secretariat interim arrangements, depository and authentic texts.
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  7. 7

    Agreements for sustaining the future environment.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW], 1997. 4 p.

    This article describes the Plan of Action (POA) of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UN Conference on the Environment and Development: Women in Forestry, Climate Change, Biodiversity, and Desertification. The conference and POA support sustainable development and a global partnership between developed and developing countries, and between governments and civil society. 172 governments adopted the Agenda 21 POA. The plans on Climate Change and Biological Diversity were legally binding Conventions. The Convention to Combat Desertification was enforced in 1996. Chapter 11 of Agenda 21 defines a policy framework for women and forestry that ensures a rational and holistic approach, which involves the participation of women, youth, indigenous peoples, the private sector, and government. The forestry plan promotes the participation of this broad group of people in forest-related activities and their access to information and training programs and institutional formation and strengthening. The forestry programs should maintain and expand existing vegetative cover. The Biological Diversity Convention aims to conserve biological species, genetic resources, and habitats, and to ensure sustainable use of biological materials. The benefits from genetic resources should be fairly and equitably shared. The Convention on Climate Change establishes a process for responding to climate change, including a reporting system and transfer of funding and technology to developing countries. The Convention on Desertification aims to ameliorate the effects of drought and to act with international cooperation and partnership agreements to improve land productivity, conservation, and sustainable management of land and water resources. The Convention relies on "a bottom up" approach and a framework that counters the degradation of drylands, deserts, and semi-arid grasslands.
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  8. 8

    Claiming and using indigenous knowledge.

    Appleton H; Fernandez ME; Hill CL; Quiroz C

    In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 55-81.

    This document is the third chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter addresses the nature of indigenous knowledge systems, their potential role in sustainable and equitable development, and possible strategies for promoting mutually beneficial exchanges between local and S&T knowledge systems. The introduction notes 1) that local knowledge science systems differ from modern S&T because they are managed by users of knowledge and are holistic, 2) gender roles lead to differentiation in the kind of local knowledge and skills acquired by women and by men, and 3) sustainable and equitable development depends upon full recognition and reinforcement of local knowledge systems. The chapter continues with an analysis of 1) gender, biodiversity, and new agrotechnologies; 2) gender and intellectual property rights, especially in regard to biotechnological developments based on local knowledge; and 3) the work of governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and local groups in the areas of S&T programs with women, general women's programs, and programs focused on indigenous knowledge (with an emphasis on research in gender and indigenous knowledge systems, women promoting diversity, the comparative advantage of indigenous knowledge, and the role of NGOs and information networks). Next, the chapter considers the work of the UN and its agencies through a review of documents containing S&T agreements; support for women's rights; and work in the areas of indigenous people, biodiversity, and intellectual property rights. The chapter ends by identifying areas of critical concern and research needs.
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  9. 9

    The United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and research on population and the environment.

    Pierce CS

    In: Human population, biodiversity and protected areas: science and policy issues. Report of a workshop, April 20-21, 1995, Washington, DC, edited by Victoria Dompka. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], International Directorate, 1996. 91-5.

    This UN Population Fund author reports on the need for rapid assessment in the field and research methods that include contextual factors, such as political systems, partners of governance, and culture and tradition. Sustainable development policies need to be evaluated in terms of the impact at the local level. Rapid assessment of an intervention opens up the opportunity to adjust actions to local conditions. Dialogue between natural and social scientists conducting research in developing and developed countries needs to be nurtured. The 1994 Cairo conference on population and development served to emphasize the need for continued research on the links between population, the environment, and development. The conference climate was conducive to the encouragement of new partnerships between government and nongovernmental or private organizations and to the greater involvement of the private sector in planning, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive population and development programs. The UN General Assembly Resolution 49/128 emphasizes the importance of improved cooperation in implementing the Cairo Plan of Action. The UN Population Fund plans to continue to assist in building national institutional capacity to implement the Plan of Action and to mobilize resources. A 1995 Executive Board report proposes a concentrated approach to programming in reproductive health and family planning, population and development strategies, and advocacy. The new paradigm of population and development that was part of the Plan of Action includes population issues within sustainable development and sustained economic growth. Programs that slow population growth, reduce poverty, achieve economic progress, improve environmental protection, and reduce unsustainable consumption and production patterns are interrelated. Cairo aimed to build bridges between the scientific and policymaking communities.
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