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Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO / UNICEF collaboration.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2013 Mar; 1(1):68-83.In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet’s goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child immunization services, track children’s immunization history and encourage vaccination of children missing scheduled vaccinations, and mobilize local opinion leaders. Creative behavior change activities and materials promoted vaccination awareness and safety, household hygiene, sanitation, home diarrheal-disease control, and breastfeeding. Program decision-makers at all levels used household-level data that were aggregated at community and district levels, and senior staff provided rapid feedback and regular capacity-building supervision to field staff. Use of routine project data and targeted research findings offered insights into and informed innovative approaches to overcoming community concerns impacting immunization coverage. While the SMNet worked in the highest-risk, poorly served communities, data suggest that the immunization coverage in SMNet communities was often higher than overall coverage in the district. The partners’ organizational and resource differences and complementary technical strengths posed both opportunities and challenges; overcoming them enhanced the partnership’s success and contributions.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, . 8 p. (Guidance Brief)This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on effective HIV interventions for young people in humanitarian emergencies. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 51 p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 120)The UN Millennium Development Goals call for not only greater financial commitment in international assistance programs but also innovative strategies to tackle the serious economic, health, education, and other basic human rights problems in the developing world. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 2 is an overview of key theoretical models of development communication. Chapter 3 describes the characteristic patterns of recent empirical studies in development communication in terms of theoretical models and types of communication strategies. Chapter 4 presents some outstanding evidence of the impacts of communication on development initiatives. Chapter 5 discusses weak spots in the evidence. The concluding chapter will make suggestions for further research by drawing attention to the theoretical, methodological and empirical gaps in the existing academic research in development communication.
Directions in Global Health. 2007 Sep; 4(2):1-11.The health of women in the developing world is a growing priority for the global community. We are increasingly aware of women's vulnerability to AIDS and other diseases-and the cultural factors that can reduce their opportunities to live healthy lives. At the same time, there is ever-greater recognition of women's enormous influence on the health and well-being of their communities. PATH has been a front-runner in the race to offer women better health solutions since our first project, in the late 1970s-helping manufacturers in China set up facilities for producing high-quality condoms and other contraceptives. Today PATH's work extends across the spectrum of women's health. The projects highlighted in this issue of Directions range from better care for mothers and infants to new options for woman-initiated protection against HIV to programs that help give women an equal chance at a healthy life. We anticipate that over the next decade, the investment in women among PATH and organizations like us will only continue to deepen. When women are healthy, so are their families and communities-the starting point for a stronger, more stable world. (excerpt)
International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007.  p.Congress participants recognized a need to think further about what successful change looks like, in terms of both what is seen to be a success and what is considered to be good change. Reconsidering the nature of change is an increasingly pressing need in a development context that is increasingly driven by top-down global indicators of success and uniform measures of development. Communication for Development is not the miracle cure. It must not overlook the real politics and structural and power issues, which need to be addressed. The Congress showcased many examples of successful Communication for Development but recognized that there is inadequate documentation of these successes. The many voices at the Congress were evidence of just how far Communication for Development has come in 40 years and of the variety of people now working in this field from all over the world. "This Congress has given us confidence that we are not alone in our profession," said one participant. The words of some of its original founders still ring true: "The core of all development is empowerment, and the key to empowerment is communication" (Donald Snowden, Fogo Process activist). The next stage is for Congress participants to use the ideas gleaned during the three days to make this a reality in the world in which they work. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Jul 21; 370(9583):202-203.After a series of meetings, open internet-based reviews, and consultations over a year, WHO and UNAIDS recently released guidance on HIV testing and counselling initiated by health providers. Those not engaged in this exercise might not fully appreciate the evolution of thinking represented by this final document, nor the role played by active debate between constituencies with diverging views on key issues. Among these issues was whether HIV testing should be included in the panoply of routine tests given in health settings on the initiative of the clinician, unless the patient specifically opted-in by asking to be tested for HIV or opted-out by refusing the test, despite not having been prompted to consent to it. Many found the ideas confusing and questioned the underlying assumption of this approach-ie, that patients who signed off on admission forms when consulting or being admitted to a care facility de-facto agree to any diagnostic test found necessary by the treating doctor. Concerns were raised that, unlike other tests, in view of prevailing stigma, discrimination, and risks of violence attached to an HIV-positive result in many settings, particularly for women, specific individual agreement to the test remained necessary. (excerpt)
Peddro. 2001 Dec; 106.The World Health Organization has developed a prevention kit to help educators to inform young people about AIDS risks and the abuse of psychoactive substances. This kit produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) was developed over a period of several years. The first version was brought out in 1995 and submitted for the approval of more than 700 professionals, including social workers and people working for associations in various countries. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence is now proposing a fully developed pedagogical tool designed to ensure that it can be widely distributed and easily understood by educators all over the world, whatever experience they may or may not have acquired in this field. Although the contents of the course are fairly general, there is also a handbook explaining how to adapt the way in which information is presented, depending on the specificities of the local context. (excerpt)
Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Information / education / communication. A cultural approach to HIV / AIDS prevention and care.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies, 2001.  p. (Methodological Handbooks, Special Series, Issue No. 1; HIV / AIDS Prevention and Care: a Cultural Approach)The Joint UNESCO/UNAIDS Project "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care" was launched in mid-1998, in relation to the new approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care inaugurated by UNAIDS. The UNAIDS strategy emphasizes the necessity of giving priority to the multidimensional configuration of the issue and to the diversity of its environment, in order to build comprehensive and adaptable strategies and policies. In this sense, "A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care", represents a new contribution towards finding solutions to this apparently insuperable challenge. Its major methodological output aims at tailoring the content and pace of action to people's mentalities, beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilize and, as a consequence to accordingly modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work. In this respect, this initiative clearly meets the principles and orientations of the Declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on HIV/AIDS (June 2001), that states the importance of emphasizing the role of cultural, family, ethical and religious factors in the prevention of the epidemic and in treatment, care and support, taking into account the particularities of each country as well as the importance of respecting all human rights and fundamental freedoms. On the basis of the research carried out to date, this handbook deals with building culturally appropriate Information/Education/Communication (IEC) material. After a conceptual introduction, it presents the methodological research to be carried out: evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitizing and mobilizing cultural references and resources accordingly. Then it identifies the proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. Finally, it proposes appropriate IEC models, combining message elaboration and delivery. (excerpt)
Malaria treatment policy: technical support needs assessment. Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) Senegal Mission report, March 14-21, 2005.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005. 18 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADF-437)African countries are undergoing a period of dramatic change in their national malaria treatment policies as more of these countries adopt artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Successful implementation of the new ACT policies presents many challenges and most countries will require technical assistance from a variety of sources, both internal and external. The Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) partnership brings together three partners that have considerable expertise in many of the areas related to ACT implementation, which complements expertise brought by other Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has made a commitment to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to provide technical assistance through MAC. This mission was therefore designed to assess the progress of Senegal toward implementing the new ACT policy and to determine what, if any, additional technical support it may need to successfully complete the implementation. It is expected that the successful implementation of the ACT policy will contribute to the attainment of the RBM goals for the prevention, treatment, and control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through coordinated technical support. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2004 Dec; 7(2):19-20.For three years (2001-2003), the approach was pilot-tested in two sites (Kamasakit, Dallah Township and Sarmalauk, Nyaungdone Township), giving rise to a number of communityoperated youth centres. The lessons from these pilot tests were described in a new publication by the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team in Bangkok: The crucial support of community leaders was key to the community-based approach. Advocacy was carried out in the initial stage of implementation with activities targeting both national and local leaders and influencers. Activities were implemented regularly in the form of meetings, orientation and training sessions, participatory training workshops and site visits from high-level officials. (excerpt)
HIV / AIDS and Communication for Behaviour and Social Change: Programme Experiences, Examples, and the Way Forward. International Workshop, UNAIDS, Dept. of Policy, Strategy and Research, Geneva, Switzerland, July 25 to 27, 2000.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Jun. 65 p. (UNAIDS/01.39E)The present report synthesises the deliberations of a workshop on "Communication for Behaviour and Social Change: Programme Experiences, Examples, and the Way Forward", organised by UNAIDS' Department of Policy, Strategy and Research (PSR) and the Secretariat of the International Partnership Against AIDS in Africa (IPAA) in Geneva in July, 2000. The workshop's objectives were (1) to map out strategies for implementation of communication programmes for behaviour and social change, using newly-emerging directions from UNAIDS, Co-sponsors, and other organisations, (2) to strengthen linkages between communication programmes and priority issues in HIV/AIDS in developing countries, and (3) to increase technical soundness in communication programmes, projects, and strategies of organisations working in the realm of HIV/AIDS. Some 67 participants with responsibility for communication-related programmes from UNAIDS, its Co-sponsors, other UN agencies, and other international, regional and in-country organisations, including policy-makers, programme managers, technical advisors, scholars, and Foundation officials participated in the workshop. (excerpt)