Your search found 116 Results

  1. 1
    335827

    Health for the world’s adolescents: A second chance in the second decade. Summary.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2014. [20] p. (WHO/FWC/MCA/14.05)

    The report summarized in this document brings together all WHO guidance concerning adolescents across the full spectrum of health issues. It offers a state-of-the-art overview of four core areas for health sector action: providing health services; collecting and using the data needed to plan and monitor health sector interventions; developing and implementing health-promoting and health-protecting policies; and mobilizing and supporting other sectors. The report concludes with key actions for strengthening national health sector responses to adolescent health. The website will be the springboard for consultation with a wide range of stakeholders leading to a concerted action plan for adolescents.
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  2. 2
    333454

    UNAIDS terminology guidelines. Revised version.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct. [40] p.

    These guidelines to UNAIDS’ preferred terminology have been developed for use by staff members, colleagues in the Programme’s 10 Cosponsoring organisations, and other partners working in the global response to HIV. Language shapes beliefs and may influence behaviours. Considered use of appropriate language has the power to strengthen the global response to the epidemic. UNAIDS is pleased to make these guidelines to preferred terminology freely available. It is a living, evolving document that is reviewed on a regular basis. Comments and suggestions for additions, deletions, or modifications should be sent to terminology@unaids.org.
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  3. 3
    333451

    Combination HIV prevention: Tailoring and coordinating biomedical, behavioural and structural strategies to reduce new HIV infections. A UNAIDS discussion paper.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010 Sep. [36] p. (UNAIDS Discussion Paper No. 10; UNAIDS - JC2007)

    This discussion paper summarizes the approach to HIV prevention programming known as “combination prevention” that UNAIDS recommends to achieve the greatest and most lasting impact on reducing HIV incidence and on improving the well-being of affected communities around the world.
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  4. 4
    321989
    Peer Reviewed

    Traditional birth attendant training for improving health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes.

    Neilson JP

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007 Nov; 110(5):1017-1018.

    Between the 1970s and 1990s, the World Health Organization promoted traditional birth attendant (TBA) training as one strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. To date, evidence in support of TBA training remains limited and conflicting. The objectives were to assess effects of TBA training on health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) (June 2006); electronic databases representing fields of education, social, and health sciences (inception to June 2006); the internet; and contacted experts. Published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before/after and interrupted time series studies comparing trained and untrained TBAs or women cared for/living in areas served by TBAs. Three authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Four studies, involving over 2,000 TBAs and nearly 27,000 women, are included. One cluster-randomized trial found significantly lower rates in the intervention group regarding stillbirths (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.83, P less than .001), perinatal death rate (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.83, P less than .001) and neonatal death rate (adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82, P less than .001). Maternal death rate was lower but not significant (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45-1.22, P=.24) while referral rates were significantly higher (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.90, P less than .001). A controlled before/after study among women who were referred to a health service found perinatal deaths decreased in both intervention and control groups, with no significant difference between groups (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.59-1.76, P=.95). Similarly, the mean number of monthly referrals did not differ between groups (P=.321). One RCT found a significant difference in advice about introduction of complementary foods (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.10-3.90, P=.02) but no significant difference for immediate feeding of colostrum (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.62-3.03, P=.44). Another RCT found no significant differences in frequency of postpartum hemorrhage (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76-1.17, P=.60) among women cared for by trained versus TBAs. The potential of TBA training to reduce peri-neonatal mortality is promising when combined with improved health services. However, the number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria is insufficient to provide the evidence base needed to establish training effectiveness. (author's)
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  5. 5
    297794

    HIV and AIDS in the Caucasus region: a socio-cultural approach.

    Buckley C; Papoyan A; Arakelyan A; Bakshinyan E; Ismailova L

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 85 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4A)

    Placing the HIV- and AIDS-related experiences of the countries of the southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) into social and cultural perspective is uniquely important. Within these three 'second wave' countries of the former Soviet Union, alarming claims that 'drug-driven epidemics are spiralling out of control' run counter to the relatively low number of individuals officially identified as HIV positive. The proportionate increase in the number of individuals affected has been substantial each year since the late 1990s, yet HIV and AIDS remain poorly documented, misunderstood, and highly stigmatised in the region. Analyses of the social and cultural factors influencing the ability of these countries to determine national strategies, implement effective prevention programmes, and develop better monitoring systems can assist in rectifying the differences between dire future predictions and the current modest prevalence rates. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    297498

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the Information Meeting with Permanent Delegates on HIV / AIDS, UNESCO, 10 May 2005.

    Matsuura K

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005. [5] p. (DG/2005/074)

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to this information session on UNESCO's role, aims and programme in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We are very lucky to have with us Dr Peter Piot, whose excellent work and results as the Executive Director of UNAIDS have recently been underscored by his re-appointment for a new five-year mandate from this year. I am also delighted to welcome Mrs Cristina Owen-Jones, UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador with a special brief for the fight against HIV/AIDS, who will also address you this afternoon. In my introductory remarks to you today, I would like to briefly outline the process through which UNESCO has engaged with the HIV/AIDS challenge during the past few years. That engagement has taken place within an overall context marked by three main features: first, the continuing spread of the epidemic; second, its devastating impact on whole societies and their key institutions (such as education systems) as well as upon communities and families; and, third, the emphasis upon treatment as the major response to HIV and AIDS. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    282823

    Social mobilization for health promotion.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, [2001]. [15] p.

    Social mobilization can propel people to act, redirect or create human and material resources for the achievement of a social goal. Central to social mobilization is the concept of "social capital" defined as the interaction among people through systems that enhance and support that interaction. Social capital is created from a myriad of everyday interactions between people and is embodied in such structures as civic and religious groups, family membership, informal community networks, and in norms of v voluntarism, altruism and trust. Even in areas with limited economic capital, social capital has been shown to generate the energy and resources needed to effect changes in the community. Contextually, social mobilization is an integrative process where stakeholders are stimulated to become active participants in social change, using diverse strategies to meet shared goals. Simply put, social mobilization is about people taking action towards a common good. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    192152

    Report on infectious diseases 2002. Scaling up the response to infectious diseases. A way out of poverty.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. 101, [25] p.

    In December 2001, the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health presented the results of its two-year work to the World Health Organization in a publication titled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. The Commissioners present a new global blueprint for health that is both compassionate and cost-effective. Millions of deaths occur each year in the developing world due to conditions which can be prevented or treated. The Commissioner's outline a plan of action to save millions of these lives every year at a small cost relative to the vast improvements in health and increased prosperity. The Report shows that just a few conditions are responsible for a high proportion of the avoidable deaths in poor countries — and that well-targeted measures, using existing technologies, could save around 8 million lives per year and generate economic benefits of more than $360 billion per year, by 2015–2020. The aggregate cost of scaling up essential health interventions in low-income countries would be around $66 billion per year, with the costs roughly divided between high income donor countries and low-income countries. Thus, the economic benefits would vastly outstrip the cost. Scaling Up the Response to Infectious Diseases: A way Out of Poverty takes up the Commission's challenge. It outlines how increased investment in health can be well spent, stressing how interventions, health system strengthening and behaviour change together can help achieve the goals we are setting ourselves. This report takes forward the Commission's action agenda. It will help decision makers see how we can turn increased investment in health into concrete results. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    273837

    The role of the health sector in supporting adolescent health and development. Materials prepared for the technical briefing at the World Health Assembly, 22 May 2003.

    Brandrup-Lukanow A; Akhsan S; Conyer RT; Shaheed A; Kianian-Firouzgar S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003. 15 p.

    I am very pleased to be here, and to be part of the discussion on Young Peoples Health at the World Health Assembly, for two reasons: because of the work we have been doing in adolescent health over the past years together with the Member States of the European Region of WHO, the work in cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS on adolescent health and development. Secondly, because Youth is a priority area of work of German Development Cooperation, and of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, where I am working presently. Indeed, we have devoted this years GTZ´s open house day on development cooperation to youth I would also like to take this opportunity to remember the work of the late Dr. Herbert Friedman, former Chief of Adolescent Health in WHO, whose vision of the importance of working for and with young people has inspired many of the national plans and initiatives which we will hear about today. In many countries of the world, young people form the majority of populations, and yet their needs are being insufficiently met through existing health and social services. The health of young people was long denied the public, and public health attention it deserves. Adolescence is a driving force of personal, but also social development, as young people gradually discover, and question and challenge the adult world they are growing into. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    186143

    AIDS in Africa.

    Copson RW

    In: AIDS in Africa: Help the victims or ignore them?, edited by V. Lovell. New York, New York, Novinka Books, 2002. 1-21.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been far more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. According to a December 1, 2001 report issued by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), some 28.1 million adults and children are infected with the HIV virus in the region, which has about 10% of the world's population but 70% of the worldwide total of infected people. The overall rate of infection among adults is about 8.4%, compared with 1.2% worldwide. UNAIDS projects that half or more of all 15 year-olds will eventually die of AIDS in some of the worst-affected countries, such as Zambia, South Africa, and Botswana, unless the risk of contracting the disease is sharply reduced. An estimated 19.3 million Africans have lost their lives to AIDS, including an estimated 2.3 million who died in 2001. UNAIDS estimates that 3.4 million new HIV infections occurred in 2001, down from the estimated 3.8 million new infections in 2000. Experts are cautious in suggesting that this decline might represent some success in prevention efforts, particularly since the adult infection rates continue to increase in a number of countries, including Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation. Moreover, they point out that 3.4 million new infections still represents a very fast and highly destructive rate of spread. AIDS has surpassed malaria as the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa, and it kills many times more people than Africa's armed conflicts. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    182583

    Nigeria: Obasanjo launches new HIV / AIDS policy.

    United Nations. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Integrated Regional Information Networks [IRIN]

    Nairobi, Kenya, IRIN, 2003 Aug 5. 2 p.

    Obasanjo, who unveiled the new policy in the capital Abuja on Monday, said all elected officials and civil servants had a duty to be active in the fight against HIV/AIDS, so that their example would permeate the entire population of more than 120 million people. The president said appropriate measures would be designed to address the vulnerability of women and children to the scourge which has infected more than three million Nigerians, including 800,000 children. He said the new policy would lead to the drafting of a new law to protect the civil rights of those affected by HIV/AIDS. It would also encourage the provision of support and care for people affected by HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    178058

    Behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. [Intervenciones conductuales para la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH]

    Institute of Medicine. International Forum for AIDS Research

    Washington, D.C., Institute of Medicine, International Forum for AIDS Research, [1992]. 8 p.

    The fourth meeting of the International Forum for AIDS Research was organized around three overall objectives: a) to consider a model for categorizing behavioral interventions; b)to share information about current behavioral intervention programs in which IFAR members are involved; and c) to foster discussion about the adequacy of present strategies. The meeting began with an analytical phase that explored aspects of methodology, followed with presentations on selected programs, and concluded with a generic case study exercise that highlighted different social scientific perspectives on producing change in human behavior. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    180155

    Trauma and resilience during war: a look at the children and humanitarian aid workers of Bosnia.

    Berk JH

    Psychoanalytic Review. 1998 Aug; 85(4):639-658.

    This article will explore some of the issues of resilience in the child population of Bosnia during the recent war there. It will also look at similar issues in the humanitarian aid workers who came from outside the country as representatives of relief agencies. I, myself, worked for UNICEF, and it was my job to train members of the local population to work with Bosnian children in an attempt to increase their resilience under intense wartime stress and to reduce the traumatic impact to those children already harmed. (author's)
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  14. 14
    093063

    Evaluation of the Chogoria family planning default tracking system.

    Chogoria Hospital; Population Council

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [1] p. (KEN-13)

    For the past 20 years, Chogoria Hospital has run a steadily expanding clinic and community-based health service program in Meru District. This hospital, with its 32 satellite clinics and its catchment area, has been renowned for its high contraceptive prevalence and low fertility rate compared to the Kenyan national average and that of many sub-Saharan countries. Several factors have contributed to this success, including community-based distribution by family health educators (FHEs) and community health workers (CHWs). Through these community-based distributors, family planning (FP), child welfare, and antenatal clients who fail to turn up for appointments within a month after the default date are followed-up and encouraged to visit a clinic. Financial support for this default tracking system has been ensured through donor funds. Lately, however, the longterm sustainability and usefulness of the tracking system have been questioned. In response to this concern, the management at Chogoria Hospital asked The Population Council to evaluate the default tracking system. This study, which cost US $15,080, determined the extent to which the default tracking system is effective in identifying, tracking, and bringing defaulters back to the program. In addition, the cost of tracking down and bringing back a client was determined. A third component involved assessing the attitude of clients towards this activity and their consequent behavior when they visit Chogoria or other clinics. Data were collected from interviews with 654 defaulting clients using a general questionnaire and 3 other ones specific to FP, child welfare, and antenatal issues. 4 teams composed of local school teachers, with heads of schools acting as supervisors, identified and interviewed the defaulters over a period of 13 days. The teams, who had substantial previous experience in interviewing and data collection, received a week-long training session which included 2 days of fieldwork. A different questionnaire was used to collect information from CHWs. These data were supplemented by information received from field team observations. True defaulters were few, and the impact of CHWs and FHEs in bringing back these clients was low (11-17%). The benefits derived from bringing back a defaulter were negligible compared to the high cost of deploying the CHWs and FHEs. As a result, it was recommended that the default tracking system be discontinued. In addition, it was suggested that the CHWs and FHEs be supervised more effectively and that they concentrate their efforts on other community health activities such as primary health care counseling.
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  15. 15
    080135

    Report of Workshop on Personality Enhancement and Self Awareness for Grass-Root Level Workers (16th, 17th and 18th July, 1992).

    Project SMITA Society

    [Unpublished] 1992. [2], 16 p.

    The Safe Motherhood Immunization and Timely Action (SMITA) Society is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working in effective communication for sustained behavioral and attitudinal change for social welfare and development programs. The project Communication Support to Programs for Urban Poor supported by UNICEF/UBS entailed collaborating with other NGOs for developing communication strategies applicable to urban slums in support of integrated community development programs. Projects SMITA has helped strengthen the communication skills of grass root level workers (GRLWs) of the 19 NGOs whose program for integrated community development was supported by UNICEF/UBS. During the interaction with GRLWs the need to enhance their confidence and motivation was perceived in order to make them effective communicators. Basti workers also needed to understand themselves and other people, their personality, and the value system. Project SMITA as well as the NGO training center deemed it important to organize a workshop on personality enhancement and self awareness. GRLWs of 18 NGOs working in urban slum areas of Delhi for integrated community development under assistance from UNICEF/UBS participated in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop, held on 3 days in July 1992, were: a) to motivate and enhance the general confidence levels of the Basti workers; b) to help workers become aware of their attitudes towards themselves and towards others, c) to provide the workers with skills necessary for management of conflicts. The areas of focus were: a) understanding others and interpersonal relations; b) achievement motivation; c) self awareness for personal growth; d) feeling and behavior; e) team building; f) resolving conflicts and problem-solving skills; and g) self-disclosure and trust building. Feedback from the participants indicated that the workshop was successful, and regular sessions were suggested by some participants.
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  16. 16
    064994

    Report of the Global Commission on AIDS Third Meeting, Geneva, 22-23 March 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Commission on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1990. [4], 18 p. (GPA/GCA(3)/90.11)

    The member of the Global Commission on AIDS (GCA) convened on March 22-23, 1990 to explore the issue of drug use and HIV infection, review prevention activities, and identify critical issues for AIDS prevention and control in the early 1990s. This document provides a full account of each session including the names of the presenters, the information shared, and the discussions that followed. In the session about drug use and HIV infection, the problem was identified as being "truly global" because the sharing of injection equipment occurs everywhere. Some of the reasons cited for sharing equipment are initiation into intravenous drug use, social bonding, and practicality. Rapid spread of HIV has been seen in New York City, several Italian cities, Edinburgh, and Bangkok. Characteristically, it has taken only 3-5 years after the introduction of HIV for about 50% of injecting drug users (IDU) to be infected. Several studies have demonstrated that behavior change can lower the risk of transmission and infection rates. Amsterdam, Innsbruck, Seattle, and Stockholm had all achieved stabilization of their prevalence of HIV among IDUs at levels between 10-30%. It was emphasized that the means for behavior change must be provided for education to have an impact. The discussion of prevention activities featured the use of education, information, and communication (IEC) programs to execute mass campaigns, focus interventions, and provide monitoring and evaluation. Specific prevention activities discussed were condom usage, outreach to persons with sexually transmitted diseases, and blood safety. There were separate presentations on the status of blood transfusion programs and vaccine development. 10 issues were identified by the GCA that warrant priority attention in the early 1990s. These critical issues are research, complacency and abatement of a sense of urgency, preservation and protection of human rights and legal issues, equity of access, human sexuality, women and AIDS, AIDS as a disease affecting families, HIV/AIDS and drug use, economic and social implications of HIV/AIDS, and the collation and improvement of data.
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  17. 17
    051597

    [Avoidance of discrimination in relation to HIV-infected people and people with AIDS. Resolution WHA41.24] Non-discrimination a l'egard des personnes infectees par la VIH et des sideens.

    World Health Assembly (41st: 1989: Geneva)

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS, 1988. [2] p. (WHO/GPA/INF/88.2)

    The 41st World Health Assembly adopted a resolution urging member states to foster compassion for HIV-infected people and protect their human rights, called on governmental and non-governmental organizations engaged in AIDS control to regard the dignity of such people, and requested the Director General to do the same and to take measures to advocate the need to protect the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected people or their population groups. Examples of actions protecting human rights of AIDS and HIV victims mentioned in the resolution are fostering a spirit of understanding in education programs, avoiding discrimination or stigmatization in employment, travel or provision of services, ensuring confidentiality of HIV testing and promoting the availability of confidential counseling. Member states are urged also to include in reports to WHO on National AIDS strategies information of such measures. The Director General is also requested to report annually to the Health Assembly on the implementation of this resolution.
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  18. 18
    049409

    Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.

    When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
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  19. 19
    047059

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. Special Program on AIDS

    BULLETIN OF THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1987; 21(4):422-9.

    As of September 18, 1987, 48,104 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been reported in the Americas to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), with a case-fatality mate of 55%. Brazil, Canada, Haiti, and the US contributed 96% of the reported cases. Excluding North America, 4966 AIDS cases were reported in the remaining 40 countries and territories of the Americas. Unlike the situation in Africa, where the 1:1 male: female ratio indicates heterosexual transmission, the profile of AIDS in the Americas is dominated by transmission between homosexual and bisexual males. In 2 countries, however, Haiti and the dominican Republic, the ratio of male to female cases is 4:1, which is intermediate between the ratio in Africa and that in the US. PAHO estimates that the true number of AIDS cases in all countries except the US and Canada may be 2-4 times higher than official reported indicate. A Regional WHO/PAHO Special Program on AIDS has been developed to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. Multiple strategies and activities are projected for 1987-89, but the principal goal is to help develop and implement national AIDS prevention and control programs. The strategy calls for support of research to define the epidemiology of AIDS, surveillance conducted with appropriate laboratory support, training of health care workers, and implementation of preventive measures. The PAHO program has already mobilized US$1.3 million from WHO's nonregular funding sources for AIDS prevention and control activities in the Americas. An additional US$5 million has been obtained for AIDS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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  20. 20
    044671

    Community-based education of health personnel. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Community-Based Education of Health Personnel

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1987; (746):1-89.

    A World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Community-based Education of Health Personnel met during November 1985 to clarify the meaning of the term community-based education, to determine its implications, to suggest how to put it into practice, and to recommend ways of fostering it. This report of the meeting defines terms and covers the following: the rationale of community-based education (a historical account, underlying principles, 6 reasons in support of community-based education, the organization of community-based educational programs, major problems and constraints, and quantitative and qualitative considerations); and the principles and issues (educational principles and issues, coordination between the health and educational systems, the intersectoral approach, community involvement, the health team, the competency-based learning approach, problem-based learning, performance assessment, and recapitulation of the action to be taken in implementing a community-based educational program). Recommendations to the WHO are included along with recommendations on how to start a community-based educational program and on how to foster an understanding of the concept of community-based education. An educational program, or curriculum, can be termed community-based if, for its entire duration, it consists of an appropriate number of learning activities in a balanced variety of educational settings, i.e., in both the community and a diversity of health care services at all levels. Participation in community-based educational activities gives the students a sense of social responsibility, enables the students to relate theoretical knowledge to practical training and makes them better prepared for life and their future integration into the working environment, helps to break down barriers between trained professionals and the lay public and to establish closer communication between educational institutions and the communities they serve, helps to keep the educational process current, helps students to acquire competency in areas relevant to community health needs, and is a powerful means of improving the quality of the community health services. A clear organizational design is needed to create a community-based educational program.
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  21. 21
    045573

    Health effects of female circumcision.

    Institute for Development Training

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Institute for Development Training, 1986. 42, [3] p. (Training Course in Women's Health Module 5)

    Female circumcision encompasses a variety of surgical procedures performed on female children in Africa and the Middle East. Although female circumcision is a traditional practice, it is also a health issue because of its severe physical and psychological consequences. This women's health module seeks to provide health practitioners with information on recognizing the immediate and longterm consequences of female circumcision and to suggest ways of counteracting this practice. The module includes a pre-test and post-test and chapters on the following topics: types of female circumcision operations, immediate health effects of the practice, longterm consequences for general health, the effects of excision and infibulation on marriage and childbirth, health consequences of re-infibulation, and health education strategies. The module is self-instructional, allowing the student to learn at his or her own pace. An appended statement by the World Health Organization (WHO) states that WHO has consistently and unequivocally advised that female circumcision should not be practiced by any health professionals in any setting.
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  22. 22
    273165

    Women and drug abuse.

    United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs. Branch for the Advancement of Women

    WOMEN 2000. 1987; (2):1-18.

    It has become clear that, although many groups and organizations are concerned with the general question of drug abuse, there has been little effort made to consider the problem with special reference to women. This issue draws attention to some of the elements that particularly concern women. The 1st section discusses the proceedings of the UN International Conference On Drug Abuse And Illicit Trafficking. Special attention is paid to the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control and the Declaration of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. The next section was prepared by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of the UN. It stresses maternal drug abuse and implications for intervention. The 3rd section discusses the activities of the Un Fund For Drug Abuse Control. The 4th section outlines rehabilitation approaches to drug and alcohol dependence including the ecological approach, survival skills training, assertiveness training, and health promotion. Finally the role of the Food and Agriculture Organizazion of the UN in combating drug abuse is analyzed.
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  23. 23
    034367

    Alcohol related problems and their prevention with particular reference to adolescence. Report of the Task Force meeting Geneva, 31 August - 4 September 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Mental Health

    [Unpublished] 1984. 46 p. (MNH/NAT/84.1.)

    Cultural, socioeconomic, and biological factors all influence alcohol use by adolescents and their experience of alcohol-related problems. Although the assessment of these problems presents methodological difficulties, strategies for prevention based on educational and legislative approaches both promise some measure of success. Further research is required to establish adequate data bases and to test the effectiveness of interventions. A number of specific research proposals were developed. These included epidemiological studies, with particular emphasis on longitudinal surveys, biomedical investigations and comparative evaluations of preventive interventions. In view of the increasing concern about alcohol-related problems in many developing countries, it was recommended that priority be given to the development of approaches applicable in such settings. It was also recommended that research projects should be facilitated which rely upon a strong multicentric approach. (author's)
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  24. 24
    139799

    Third draft report, April 28. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Working Group, April 22-24, 1991.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Working Group

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. [15] p.

    Comprised of an interdisciplinary group of scientists from both developed and developing countries, a sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) research working group met April 22-24, 1991, in Geneva to develop recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities. The group took direction from a September 1989 meeting of a WHO consultative group to the WHO STD program, and a meeting of the research sub-committee of the WHO AIDS/STD Task Force held in July 1990, to consider global strategies of coordination for AIDS and STD control programs. Recommendations for the WHO/STD program on global STD research needs and priorities would stress the needs of developing countries in the areas of cost-effective prevention, case detection and management, surveillance, and program evaluation. The relevancy of potential projects to practical, operational issues was stressed throughout the meeting, and the unique global role played by the WHO STD program in encouraging and coordinating STD research and control efforts, as well as in working with donor agencies, were central themes of the meeting. The working group determined that it should prioritize research needs based upon selected factors, and consider how potential plans addressing such needs could be accomplished and funded. Program support, case management, behavior, epidemiology, and interventions were identified as broad areas of research need.
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  25. 25
    139806

    Sexually transmitted diseases research needs: report of a WHO consultative group, Copenhagen, 13-14 September 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. 31 p.

    In response to the growing needs for research into sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the STD Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 1989 convened a small interdisciplinary consultative group of scientists from both developing and more developed countries to review STD research priorities. The consultation was organized based upon the belief that a joint consideration of global STD research priorities and local research capabilities would increase overall research capacity by coordinating the efforts of scientists from around the world to get the job done. Participants considered the areas of biomedical research, clinical and epidemiological research, behavioral research, and operations research. However, research needs directly related to HIV were not considered except where they interfaced with research on other STDs. The above areas of research, as well as the expansion of interregional and interdisciplinary collaborations, the strengthening of research institutions, developing and strengthening research training, and facilitating technology transfer and the use of marketing systems are discussed.
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