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  1. 1
    274985

    Antimicrobial and support therapy for bacterial meningitis in children. Report of the meeting of 18- 20 June 1997, Geneva, Switzerland.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998. [29] p. (WHO/CHD/98.6; WHO/EMC/BAC/98.2)

    WHO and UNICEF have developed an integrated approach to address the major life-threatening illnesses of children known as Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). Lessons learned from disease-specific programmes have been applied to promote co-ordination and integration of the activities to improve the prevention and management of childhood illness. Apart from five major killer diseases of children under five years (acute respiratory infections - mostly pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles, malaria and malnutrition) bacterial meningitis is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    137630
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevention and control of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    Reilly A

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1998; 76(3):245-55.

    This memorandum was developed at a World Health Organization Consultation on Prevention and Control of Escherichia coli (EHEC) Infections, held in Geneva, Switzerland, April 28 to May 1, 1997. Since EHEC O157:H7 was recognized as a human pathogen in 1982, it has been a steadily increasing cause of food-borne illness worldwide. In view of the magnitude and severity of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by EHEC O157:H7, there is an urgent need for public health and environmental health agencies, farmers, animal producers, food processors and caterers, and researchers to collaborate to reduce or eliminate the health impact of this hazard. The memorandum presents a global overview of EHEC infections, then addresses surveillance of EHEC infections, outbreak identification, and control measures. Recommended prevention and control measures include: use of potable water in food production, presentation of clean animals at slaughter, improved hygiene throughout the slaughter process, appropriate use of food processing measures, thorough cooking of food, and education of food handlers and others on the principles and application of food hygiene.
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  3. 3
    133054

    Validation of outpatient IMCI guidelines.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Child Health Research Project

    SYNOPSIS. 1998 Jan; (2):1-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines were designed to maximize detection and appropriate treatment of illnesses due to the most common causes of child mortality and morbidity in developing countries: pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, bacterial infections in young infants, malnutrition, anemia, and ear problems. The health worker first examines the child and checks immunization status, then classifies the child's illness and identifies the appropriate treatment based on a color-coded triage system. By May 1997, 17 countries had introduced IMCI and 16 others were in the process of introduction. This issue reports on field tests of the guidelines conducted in Kenya, the Gambia, Uganda, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. Health workers who used the guidelines performed well when compared to physicians who had access to laboratory and radiographic findings as well as health workers trained in full case management. Of concern, however, are research findings suggesting the potential for overdiagnosis in some disease classifications. Current IMCI research priorities include the following: 1) determining health workers' ability to learn to detect lower chest wall indrawing; 2) identifying clinical signs to increase the specificity of referral for severe pneumonia; 3) identifying other clinical signs to increase the specificity of hospital referrals, thereby reducing unnecessary referrals; 4) investigating how clinical care for severely ill children could be expanded in areas where referral is not feasible; 5) finding ways to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of malaria; and 6) recognizing clinical signs to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of severe anemia and the specificity of the diagnosis of moderate or mild anemia, with the possible goal of regional adaptation of the anemia guidelines.
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