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Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 May 1; 89(5):390-2.This article focuses on antimicrobial resistance, which challenges the control of infectious diseases, jeopardizes progress on health outcomes by increasing morbidity and mortality, and imposes huge costs on societies. It discusses several aspects related to antimicrobial resistance including: the lack of commitment and data, un-assured drug quality, poor prevention and control of infections, and weaker research efforts. It concludes by outlining the World Health Organization's policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance, which reframes the critical actions to be taken by governments to stimulate change by all stakeholders.
Generic protocol to estimate the burden of Shigella diarrhoea and dysenteric mortality. Field test version, May 1999.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, 1999. 37 p. (WHO/V&B/99.26)The WHO Department of Vaccines and Biologicals (V&B) has an increasing interest in vaccines against Shigella, and several candidate vaccines are being tested in clinical trials. The promise of having a new generation of vaccines available in the relatively near future emphasizes the need to understand the disease burden and the epidemiology of Shigella infection in developing countries. The V&B Steering Committee on Epidemiology and Field Research and the V&B Steering Committee on Diarrhoeal Disease Vaccines jointly identified the need for a practical method for immunization programme managers and clinical epidemiologists to assess the local disease burden due to Shigella. At the request of these Steering Committees, this generic protocol was prepared by staff at the U.S National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the University of Maryland, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This protocol provides a general outline for a study and describes the main procedures involved. However, it will need to be adapted to the local setting, and details of field work and operational procedures should be added by local investigators with experience in conducting field studies of diarrhoeal diseases. WHO provides this protocol free-of-charge. In return, WHO would appreciate being informed about studies conducted using this protocol. This WHO document should be referenced in any publication resulting from its use. Comments or suggestions for improving this generic protocol are welcome and should be sent to the Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. (excerpt)
Antimicrobial and support therapy for bacterial meningitis in children. Report of the meeting of 18- 20 June 1997, Geneva, Switzerland.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1998.  p. (WHO/CHD/98.6; WHO/EMC/BAC/98.2)WHO and UNICEF have developed an integrated approach to address the major life-threatening illnesses of children known as Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). Lessons learned from disease-specific programmes have been applied to promote co-ordination and integration of the activities to improve the prevention and management of childhood illness. Apart from five major killer diseases of children under five years (acute respiratory infections - mostly pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles, malaria and malnutrition) bacterial meningitis is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. (excerpt)