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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    The WHO policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Leung E; Weil DE; Raviglione M; Nakatani H

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011 May 1; 89(5):390-2.

    This article focuses on antimicrobial resistance, which challenges the control of infectious diseases, jeopardizes progress on health outcomes by increasing morbidity and mortality, and imposes huge costs on societies. It discusses several aspects related to antimicrobial resistance including: the lack of commitment and data, un-assured drug quality, poor prevention and control of infections, and weaker research efforts. It concludes by outlining the World Health Organization's policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance, which reframes the critical actions to be taken by governments to stimulate change by all stakeholders.
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  2. 2

    [Expanded Programme on Immunization: stability of freeze dried measles vaccine] Programme Elargi de Vaccination: stabilite du vaccin antirougeoleux lyophilise.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Weekly Epidemiological Record / Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 1981 Jun 12; 56(23):177-9.

    This report brings up to date those data summarized previously regarding the stability of freeze-dried measles vaccine and is based on information obtained from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) intends to establish a requirement for the stability of freeze-dried measles vaccine, and a draft of such a requirement is represented along with an analysis of how such a requirement would influence WHO acceptance of the vaccine included in this report. A plaque assay method was used to determine the potency of measles vaccine which had been stored in a freeze-dried state at 37 degrees Centigrade for varying intervals. Vaccine containers were exposed at 37 degrees Centigrade in a water bath and duplicate samples transferred to -70 degrees Centigrade at intervals ranging from 1 to 28 days. The residual infectious virus was determined by the plaque assay method in parallel with vaccine that had not been incubated. The results from 16 patches produced by 9 manufacturers are summarized in a table, which includes recent data a well as the results from the previous report. 2 criteria of stability are included: the number of days required for the live virus titer to drop to an acceptable minimum level when stored at 37 degrees Centigrade (Criterion 1); and the loss of live virus titer when stored for 7 days at 37 degrees Centigrade (Criterion 2). Neither criterion is sufficient on its own. A quite unstable vaccine might still have the required potency after being stored for a week at 37 degrees Centigrade if the vaccine had a high virus titer initially. Yet, a product with satisfactory stability might still fail the potency requirement if its initial virus titer was borderline. A figure shows how the vaccines would be rated according to the proposed requirements. The proposed requirement for the stability of freeze-dried measles vaccine will be presented to the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization during its meeting in September 1981. If accepted, it would become effective by March 1982.
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