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Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
INDIAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. 1990 Jan-Feb; 57(1):7-14.Problems facing the world's children, development goals for children, and strategies for meeting these goals in the 1990s are abstracted from a UNICEF publication "Strategies for Children in the 1990s". Children face poverty (45% of children under 5 outside China), mortality from diarrhea, preventable diseases, malaria, meningitis and others, disabling diseases, being unplanned, low birth weight, malnutrition, lack of sanitation and education, and 20% are in "especially difficult circumstances" i.e. war, disaster, abandonment of refugee status. Children should be the starting point of development strategy since human capital is the basis of national investment. The UN goals are to reduce infant mortality by 50% in all countries or to 50-70/1000; reduce maternal mortality by 50%, provide safe drinking water, sanitation and universal education and eliminate guinea worm by 1995. Specific goals in maternal and child health are listed. Emphasis should be placed on implementation with today's technology, reaching the hard to reach, giving preferential access to women.
Growing up in a changing world. Part two: youth organizations and family life education: ideas into action.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Programme Development Dept., 1985. 107 p.This publication, Part 2 of "Growing up in a Changing World," was produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation at the request of the Informal Working Group on Family Life Education. It provides practical guidelines for organizations that want to incorporate family life education into their program. Whereas Part 1 focused on the concept of family life education, Part 2 provides concrete material on training and project activities. A basic training program for youth leaders should include specific content areas in family life education and the use of participatory learning methods so leaders can organize educational activities for other young people in the community. The training should cover the communication process and give youth leaders practice in organizing group discussions. Project planning, management, and evaluation are also important aspects of leadership training. The activities suggested in this publication are all participatory in approach and based on the belief that people learn best through activities in which their own knowledge and experience are valued. The descriptions of activities include the following components: introduction, objectives, materials, time, preparation, and procedure. Of importance is assessment of the suitability of these sample activities for use with specific groups of young people. In considering suitability, 3 factors should be kept in mind: 1) there may be opposition by parents or religious leaders to subjects concerned with sex education and family planning, and ways should be sought to overcome this resistance; 2) activities must be appropriate to the learning abilities, characteristics, and circumstances of the target population; and 3) speical care is needed when developing or adapting activities for use with young people who are illiterate.