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  1. 1
    164069
    Peer Reviewed

    Diagnosis and management of febrile children using the WHO / UNICEF guidelines for IMCI in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Factor SH; Schillinger JA; Kalter HD; Saha S; Begum H

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79(12):1096-105.

    In Dhaka, Bangladesh, a study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of WHO’s integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) guidelines in identifying children with bacterial infections in need of antibiotics. A systematic sample of 669 sick children aged 2-59 months was enrolled in the study. Weight, tactile, measured temperature, and respiratory rate were obtained from each patient. The study revealed that had IMCI guidelines been used to evaluate the subjects, 78% of those with bacterial infections would have received antibiotics, including the majority of children with meningitis (100%), pneumonia (95%), otitis media (95%), urinary tract infection (83%), bacteremia (50%), dysentery (48%), and skin infections (30%). It was also noted that the fever module identified only one additional case of meningitis. Children with bacteraemia were more likely to be febrile, feel hot and have history of fever than those with dysentery and skin infections. Fever combined with parental perception of fast breathing provided a more sensitive fever module for the detection of bacteraemia than the current ICMI module. In an area of low malaria prevalence, the IMCI guidelines provide antibiotics to the majority of children with bacterial infections, but improvements in the fever module are possible.
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  2. 2
    270489

    Local Area Monitoring (LAM).

    Kirsch TD

    WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1988; 41(1):19-25.

    Routine surveillance of the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases has not proved sensitive enough to demonstrate the impact of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in many countries. In order to document progress since the start of the EPI in 1979, data are needed for several years prior to that. In most developing countries these can be found only in major cities or large hospitals. Therefore a system of sentinel surveillance, the Local Area Monitoring Project (LAM), is being set up in selected institutions in the major cities of the developing world. The primary goal of the LAM project is to provide disease-incidence data of sufficient quality to evaluate more fully the global impact of the EPI on the 6 target diseases--diptheria, pertusis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, and tuberculosis. The goal is to include the major city of each of the 25 largest developing countries, with a total population of 115 million. These 25 countries together account for 85% of all births in the developing world. The program and coverage information is used to assess the impact of individual EPI programs on disease trends. Preliminary analysis of the 12 cities with the best data suggests that the impact of the EPI on the incidence of the target diseases has been greater than previously shown by the routine system. The LAM information is useful for global and regional analysis of program impact, but for the countries themselves its utility may be even greater. It is hoped that the project will help to improve a country's surveillance system by encouraging the use of sentinel reporting as a means of supplementing routine data. The information on the impact of the EPI may further increase political and public support for a program. (Summaries in ENG, FRE)
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