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International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 1986 Jan; 35(1):1-2.A paper by Hazlett et al. is of particular importance because it addresses the question of the role of acute respiratory infections (ARI) as a cause of morbidity and especially mortality in 3rd world children. Diarrheal disease and malnutrition are generally thought to be the major killers of these children, and until recently little attention was paid to ARI. Recent data suggest that ARI are more important than realized previously and almost certainly are the leading cause of death in children in developing countries. It is estimated that each year more than 15 million children less than 5 years old die, obviously most in socially and economically deprived countries. Since death usually is due to a combination of social, economic, and medical factors, it is impossible to obtain precise data on the causes of death. It has been estimated that 5 million of the deaths are due to diarrhea, over 3 million due to pneumonia, 2 million to measles, 1.5 million to pertussis, 1 million to tetanus, and the other 2.5 million or less to other causes. Since pertussis is an acute respiratory infection and measles deaths frequently are due to infections of the respiratory tract, it is becoming clear that ARI are associated with more deaths than any other single cause. The significance of this is emphasized when the mortality rates from ARI in developed and underdeveloped nations are compared. Depending on the countries compared, age group, and other factors, increases of 5-10-fold have been reported. These factors raise the question of why respiratory infections are so lethal for 3rd world children. The severity of pneumonia, which is the cause of most ARI deaths, seems to be the big difference. Data are accumulating which show that bacterial infections are associated with the majority of severe infections and "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Haemophilus influenzae," infrequent causes of pneumonia in developed world children, are the microorganisms incriminated in a large proportion of cases. The increase in severity of ARI in 3rd world children has been associated, at least in port, with malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, an increased parasite load, and more recently with air pollution. Crowding and other factors associated with poverty doubtless also play a role. How these various factors contribute to increased severity and lethality is not well understood. The increasing recognition of the important role played by ARI as causes of mortality in 3rd world children is encouraging. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has joined the World Health Organization in the battle against ARI in developing countries, and the 2 organizations recently issued a joint statement on the subject in which they pledged to collaborate to integrate an ARI component into the primary health care program.