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Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
Report of the Expanded Programme on Immunization Global Advisory Group Meeting, 20-23 October 1980, Geneva.
[Unpublished] 1980. 39 p. (EPI/GEN/80/1)This report of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group Meeting, held during October 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland, presents conclusions and recommendations, global and regional overviews, working group discussions, and outlines global advisory group activities for 1981. In terms of global strategies, the EPI confronts dual challenges: to reduce morbidity and mortality by providing immunizations for all children of the world by 1990; and to develop immunization services in consonance with other health services, particularly those directed towards mothers and children, so they can mutually strengthen the approach of primary health care. Increased resources are needed to support the expansion of immunization services and to establish them as permanent elements of the health care system. The Global Advisory Group affirms the importance of setting quantified targets as a basic principle of management and endorses the principle of setting targets for the reduction of the EPI diseases at national, regional, and global levels. The primary focus for the World Health Organization (WHO) in promoting the EPI continues to be the support to national program implementation in all its aspects. The Group reviewed current EPI immunization schedules and policies and concurs in the following: for measles, for most developing countries, the available data support the current recommendations of administering a single dose of vaccine to children as early as possible after the child reaches the age of 9 months; for DPT, children in the 1st year of life should receive a series of 3 DPT doses administered at intervals of at least 1 month; for tetanus toxoid, the control of neonatal and puerperal tetanus by immunizing women of childbearing age, particularly pregnant women, is endorsed; for poliomyelitis, the Group endorses the "Outline for WHO's Research on Poliomyelitis, Polioviruses and Poliomyelitis Vaccines" prepared by the WHO Working Group convened in October 1980, i.e., for oral (live) vaccines, a 3-dose schedule, administered simultaneously with DPT vaccine, is recommended again; and for BCG concurred with the Advisory Committee on Medical Research conclusion that the use of BCG as an anti-tuberculosis measure within the EPI should be continued as at present. The implementation of programs at the national level remains the foremost priority for the EPI. National commitment, evidenced in part by the designation of a national manager, the establishment of realistic targets, and the allocation of adequate resources, is essential if programs are to succeed.