Your search found 34 Results

  1. 1

    Helping women understand contraceptive effectiveness.

    Shears KH; Aradhya KW

    Mera. 2008 Sep; iii-vi.

    When a woman chooses a contraceptive method, effectiveness is often the most important characteristic she considers. Knowing the risks and benefits of each method, including its effectiveness, is necessary for a woman to make a truly informed decision. Yet, many women do not understand how well various methods protect against pregnancy. Health professionals usually explain effectiveness by informing women of the expected pregnancy rates for each method during perfect use (when the method is used consistently and correctly) and during more typical use (such as when a woman forgets to take all of her pills). However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently endorsed a simple evidence-based chart that healthcare providers can use to help women understand the relative effectiveness of different methods -- a concept that is much easier for most people to grasp. Key points of this article are: 1) Clinicians play an important role in ensuring that women understand the concept of effectiveness -- a key element of informed choice; 2) Women are able to understand the relative effectiveness of contraceptive methods more easily than the absolute effectiveness of a particular method; and 3) A new chart that places the methods on a continuum from least to most effective can help health professionals better communicate about contraceptive effectiveness.
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  2. 2

    UNFPA's distance-learning program to expand.

    Abrams T

    Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):15.

    The UN Population Fund’s distance-learning courses, directed not only to UNFPA staffs but to workers in the population and development fields worldwide, have been attracting increasing interest and may soon be strengthened and expanded. In a June status report on the purely voluntary program, UNFPA noted that 163 students had already been trained, and that there was a large and growing waiting list of potential participants. Courses are offered in April and October of each year; their descriptive titles are: “The ‘What and Why’ of Reproductive Health;” “Confronting HIV/AIDS: Making a Difference;” “Advocacy: Action, Change and Commitment;” “Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: How to Deliver Quality Programs and Services?” “Reducing Maternal Deaths: Selecting Priorities, Tracking Progress” (offered in English, French and Spanish). A sixth course, “Mainstreaming Gender: Taking Action, Getting Results,” was introduced this year. A digest of all six courses is currently in production. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Breastfeeding information resources: an international listing of sources of resource materials and organisations.

    Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group [AHRTAG]

    London, England, AHRTAG, [1994]. [2], 93 p. (AHRTAG Resource List)

    This breast feeding resource list is divided into 2 main sections. In the first section, resource materials are arranged according to the following categories: 1) reference materials and policy documents; 2) training materials and practical resources; 3) newsletters and journals; 4) posters, flannelgraphs, and flash cards; and 5) audiovisuals, including videos, films, radio scripts, and slide sets. In each section, the resources are listed alphabetically in language groupings (most are in English). Each listing describes the content, the target audience (if available), the name of the organization or individual producing it, the price (where given), and availability. The second section lists organizations involved in supporting breast feeding. These organizations have been grouped according to the following World Health Organization (WHO) regions: Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Africa, the Americas, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. International and regional organizations are listed first within each region, followed by national and local organizations which are listed by country. In addition to contact information, the purpose of the organization and its main activities are given. Appended to this document are 1) the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, 2) a description of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, 3) information on World Breast Feeding Week, 4) a listing of available training courses, 5) a list of the countries in each WHO region, and 6) a list of organizations grouped by WHO region.
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  4. 4

    Rock and male roles: using technology and music to teach young men about gender roles and sexual and reproductive health. El rock y los roles masculinos: utilización de la tecnología y la música para enseñar a los hombres jóvenes acerca de los roles de género y de la salud sexual y reproductiva.

    Forum. 2001 Jan; 15(1):4-5.

    This article concerns the "Rock and Male Roles" CD-Rom which was developed by APROFA, the affiliate of International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region in Chile. This video is a visual representation of the struggle of young men to look critically at gender and how it influences their sexual and reproductive health. Utilizing its photos, reference documents, self-tests and MTV-style music videos, it serves to interact and engage young people to explore their attitudes and behaviors about these issues. It is noted that the idea of using multimedia to educate and motivate young men about the sexual and reproductive health issues is an innovative concept that stems from the interests of the youth. Moreover, the CD offers the advantage of anonymity, as it gives young men privacy in which they can search answers at their own pace. In fact, results from a test conducted by APROFA on 400 young men, aged 15-19 at high schools in Santiago, revealed that majority of the respondents who used the CD found it useful. Finally, some respondents revealed that the CD has an impact on their personal relationships with women.
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  5. 5

    A new approach to advising mothers on diarrhoea.

    ESSENTIAL DRUGS MONITOR. 1993; (15):9.

    Counseling mothers or caretakers about treatment of diarrhea at home is the weakest as well as the most difficult part of case management of diarrhea. Health facility surveys show that health workers correctly advise just 1-10% of mothers. They tend to advise mothers at the end of the clinic visit when they feel rushed because the clinic is crowded. Besides, health workers do not always know how to best provide mothers advise. They are trained to abide by a systematic process (ask, look, feel, decide, treat) which leaves little room for counseling. Further, they are trained to rehydrate children, but, in most clinic settings, 95% of diarrhea cases do not yet suffer dehydration. Thus, they must counsel mothers on home treatment, and the success of home treatment depends largely on the quality of the advice health workers provide. The World Health Organization (WHO) Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme has a training guide called "Advising Mothers", which helps workers at all levels counsel mothers effectively. One component of the guide is a process for health workers to use to structure the conversation (ask, praise, advise, check) and to focus on what the mother already knows. It also limits the information to essential messages. Instructors of a clinical management course or refresher course should use "Advising Mothers." WHO had available sample agendas for "Advising Mothers," training which integrate skills and exercises. The exercises take about 8 hours. Advising practice can take place during regular clinical practice sessions. If the training is a refresher course, advising practice requires a half day. "Advising Mothers" will be incorporated in future revisions of WHO clinical management training materials for diarrhea.
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  6. 6

    A checklist of hazards.

    Lloyd B

    WORLD HEALTH. 1992 Jul-Aug; 24-5.

    Most rural water sources are not protected adequately from contamination by human and animal feces. These sources are stored rainwater, surface water (streams and ponds), and groundwater from shallow holes, dug wells (often with no protective lining), and shallow hand-pumped and deeper mechanically pumped tubewells. In developing countries, after the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, only 59% of rural areas have improved, more accessible, safer water supplies. In rural China, just 10% of the population receive piped water. The WHO Collaborating Centre for the Protection of Drinking Water and Health has developed reliable, simple, and inexpensive methods for sanitarians to identify important sanitary hazards and to protect and improve rural water supplies. The sanitarian and community representatives should inspect the water source or area of sanitary concern and list all hazards observed. Each hazard receives a set number of points based on risk. Each district level should determine its own sanitary hazard weighting for each hazard. The sanitarian adds all the points for a sanitary inspection risk or hazard score. He/she discusses with the community representatives what needs to be done to improve sanitation, then provides a copy of the report to a representative, who signs it, to help him/her remember the discussion. Another copy is filed at the health center. Between 1989 and 1992, sanitarians in Indonesia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru, and Thailand have implemented this procedure in pilot projects to identify the most serious hazards resulting in high levels of fecal pollution. This can be eliminated gradually because it is expensive. In Thailand and Indonesia the most common problems were not related to high levels of fecal contamination. In Thailand, remedial action always improved water quality.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Universal immunization in urban areas: Calcutta's success story.

    Chaudhuri ER

    INDIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct-Dec; 34(4):227-34.

    The Central Government of Calcutta, India aimed to immunize 85% (85,262) of the city's >12 month old infants against polio, diphtheria, measles, tuberculosis, pertussis and tetanus. The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) achieved this target 3 months earlier than intended. In fact, at the end of December 1990, it achieved 110.6% for DPT3, 142.16% for OPV3, 151.96% for BCG, and 97% for measles. UIP was able to surpass its targets by emphasizing team work. Government, the private sector, UNICEF, and the voluntary sector made up the Apex Coordination Committee on Immunization headed up by the mayor. The committee drafted an action plan which included routine immunization sessions on a fixed day and intensive immunization drives. Further the involved organizations pooled together cold chain equipment. In addition, the District Family Welfare Bureau was the distribution center for vaccines, syringes, immunization cards, report formats, vaccine carriers, and ice packs. Health workers administered immunizations from about 300 centers generally on Wednesday, National Immunization Day. Intensive immunization drives focused on measles immunizations. UIP leaders encouraged all center to routinely record coverage and submit monthly progress reports to the District Family Welfare Bureau. The Calcutta Municipal Corporation coordinated promotion activities and social mobilization efforts. Promotion included radio and TV announcements, newspaper advertisements, cinema slides, billboards, and posters. The original UIP plan to use professional communicators to mobilize communities was ineffective, so nongovernmental organizations entered the slums to encourage people to encourage their neighbors to immunize their children. Further Islamic, Protestant, and Catholic leaders encouraged the faithful to immunize their children. A UNICEF officer noted that this success must be sustained, however.
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  8. 8

    Switching back: an experimental intervention of family planning client remotivation and clinic staff retraining: impact upon reacceptance and continuity.

    Oodit G; Johnston T

    In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 73-82.

    In 1990, the Mauritius Family Planning Association presented educational sessions for former clients allowing them to meet f amily planning personnel and other women with similar experiences. It used audiovisual aids to discuss use of modern contraceptives and the advantage of scientific family planning, to dispel myths and rumors, and to explain how different methods could be used to meet their and partners' needs. At the same time, 10 service providers from the experimental clinic underwent a 6 week sensitization and retraining program emphasizing organization for efficiency, counseling skills, and skills to build client self esteem. Researchers observed both the control and experimental clinic for 9 months in 1991. 36 remotivated clients (73% return rate) and 29 mainly former clients who did not attend a session reaccepted a contraceptive method at the experimental clinic. As for the control clinic, 24 remotivated clinics (46% return rate) and 7 mainly former clients reaccepted a method. Both clinics' staff said that the extra clients returned because the 93 remotivated clients recommended or referred them directly to the clinics. The 2 interventions therefore had a spread effect. The experimental clinic did have a much better retention rate than the control clinic (46 client vs. 28 clients), however. Further it had higher continuity rates throughout the study period. At the end of the study, the continuity rate was 93.8 for the experimental clinic and 53.8 for the control clinic. The researchers concluded that the improved clinic services of the experimental clinic due to staff retraining in skills and attentiveness were responsible for the superior retention record and rates of return and continuity. Thus IEC programs that attend to former and potential clients' needs and develop skills and attentiveness of providers improve acceptor and continuity rates.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    ZOOM: a generic personal computer-based teaching program for public health and its application in schistosomiasis control.

    Martin GT; Yoon SS; Mott KE


    In 1989, staff at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland developed teaching software that can be used on IBM-PC and IBM-compatible computers to train public health workers in schistosomiasis. They tested in several schools of public health. They then improve it by incorporating a schistosomiasis information file (stack) in ASCII file format and a routine to organize and present data. The program allows the addition of other stacks without abandoning the user interface and the instructor can change data in the stacks as needed. In fact, any text editor such as Word-Perfect can create a stack. This software teaching program (ZOOM) organizes and presents the information (Dr. Schisto). Dr. Schisto is divided into 8 chapters: introduction, epidemiology, parasitology, diagnostics, treatment, data analysis, primary health care, and global database. Users can command ZOOM to communicate in either English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. Basic hardware requirements include MS-DOS, 8086 microprocessor, 512 Kbytes RAM, CGA or MGA screen, and 2 floppy disc drives. ZOOM can also configured itself to adapt to the hardware available. ZOOM and Dr. Schisto are public domain software and thus be copied and distributed to others. Each information stack has chapters each of which contains slides, subslides, text, graphics, and dBASE, Lotus or EpiInfo files. ZOOM has key words and an index file to access more information. It also can do user defined searches using Boolean logic. Since ZOOM can be used with any properly formatted data, it has the potential to become the standard for global information exchange and for computer assisted teaching purposes.
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  10. 10

    Education for all draws upon population education messages.


    In May 1991, UNESCO and the Ministry of Education of Pakistan sponsored a Regional Workshop for the Integration of Population Education in Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All in Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to the workshop, resource persons and experts met to develop guidelines for participants that were geared towards curriculum and material needs and core population education messages. 1 workshop group addressed integration of population education messages into primary education and the other into literacy programs. All participants observed and analyzed the problems and needs of a Muslim community and Saidpur village. The 1st group visited primary schools and spoke to teachers. The participants agreed that population education messages should be integrated into social studies, science, languages, and religion subjects at grade levels 3-5. The messages should include population related beliefs and values, problems of population growth, small family size, responsible parenthood, sex preference, population and development, the role of elders, and improving the status of women. They tested 4 of 11 developed lesson plans. Both teachers and students were generally pleased, but believed that posters and illustrations would better the plans. The other group conducted a needs assessment survey among 27 Muslim families. Participants found >100 population related issues that needed to be addressed in literacy programs. These issues fit into 6 categories and the group focused on social and cultural values and beliefs. Participants developed materials that highlighted several topics, such as early marriage and preference for males. They used puppet shows, puzzle games, posters and discussions, and story telling with pictures to communicate the messages. Puppet shows were the most popular method among housewives.
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  11. 11

    Population education in the nineties: a quest for a regional programme strategy in Asia and the Pacific.


    In 1990, Asia and the Pacific constituted 59% of the world's population and this percentage has been estimated to climb to 61.76% by 1995. In addition to rapid population growth, some of the other problems plaguing the region in the early 1990s included illiteracy, absolute poverty, environmental pollution, and low status of women. Population education can play a key role in an intervention strategy for fertility decline. Schools should include population education because, if girls attend school, it can improve girls' chances for employment and affect future family sizes, and both male and female students are most apt to occupy important private sector and government positions and be leaders. UNESCO has proposed a 1992-1995 regional population education and communication program and hoped to gain UNFPA support for the program. UNESCO has heeded UNFPA's plea for more formidable and intensive backstopping to country programs. It proposed to create regional advisory teams that will provide technical assistance, organize study tours and workshops, facilitate intercountry sharing, and identify new areas of development. This team would also be population education advocates. It has also proposed a workshop in population communication for staff of rural oriented nongovernmental organizations and religious groups to close the UNFPA identified gap in information, education, and communication (IEC). Other similar proposed activities to close the IEC gap included workshops on audiovisual (AV) aids development and use and maintenance of AV equipment and on communication strategies to reach male family planning acceptors and intercountry research studies. UNESCO has also planned to place more emphasis on management, development of prototype population education materials, and other needed population education activities.
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  12. 12

    The Kenya Civil Registration Demonstration Project (CRDP): a strategy for a rapidly developing country in Africa.

    Gil B; Ronoh JK

    Nairobi, Kenya, Dept. of the Registrar-General, [1987]. xxiv, 568 p.

    Compulsory registration of births and deaths of all ethnic groups in Kenya began with independence in 1963. Nevertheless only 42% of all expected births and 22% of all expected deaths were being registered by 1979-1980. Recognizing the shortfalls, the Kenyan government began its Civil Registration Demonstration Project (CRDP) with the help of UNFPA in 1981. After the establishment of working committees and tours of targeted areas, the Committee for Improvement of the Registration System (IRS) established the head office in November 1981. It also devised a plan to address the issues of field organization and operations, registration of documents, registration processes, training of CRDP staff and personnel from other ministries, management, evaluation, and statistical data processing. The Committee for Civil Registration Enlightenment Campaign (CREC) set the strategy to secure the cooperation of both adults and primary school children (via its Civil Registration Education Programme) by launching a media campaign and introducing incentives to get people to register births and deaths. To reach all the population, CRDP enlisted the help and cooperation of all ministries. For example, assistant chiefs (employees of the Provincial Administration), village leaders (e.g., village elders and traditional birth attendants), and health personnel (employees of the Ministry of Health) reported and completed registers of birth and death within each smallest administrative unit. They did this along with performing their normal duties. To establish and efficient registration system, staff randomly selected demonstration districts to test the 2 schemes (those of IRS and CREC), and upon successful completion of the experiment, other districts would be added over a 7-10 year period.
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  13. 13

    Resource guide.

    PEOPLE. 1986; 13(2):23-4.

    The International Office and Regional Bureaux of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) have produced or financed a wide variety of publications, films, videos, slide/tape productions, and wallcharts on the management of contraceptive methods, and a new family life education resource publication. A list of publications, kits, and films is available from the IPPF Distribution Department. Additionally, many of IPPF's affiliated family planning associations produce communication materials. The Population Communication Services Project at the Johns Hopkins University offers sample family planning information and communication materials over 80 countries. It also offers a series of packets of samples on different themes, including print materials for non-readers, male responsibility, packaging for contraceptives, and reaching young people. "Population Reports" are published regularly on a variety of subjects, including communication. The Population Reference Bureau produces a range of educational materials relating to population, including an annual World Population Data Sheet and "Population Today." The World Health Organization publishes an illustrated bimonthly magazine, "World Health," a periodic newsletter, and a 1-page fact-sheet identifying the health benefits of family planning. The UN Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has produced a variety of films, posters, booklets, slide-sets, and records. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has produced a range of audiovisual aids dealing with family planning and population. The UN Fund for Population Activities produces a wide range of population-related publications and visual aids. The Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health specialized in the development of print materials for specific audiences. Clearinghouse on Development Communication is a center for materials on applications of communication technology to development problems. The Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development has produced around 100 prototype radio and television programs dealing with population. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has produced a series of films/videos on community health, parasite control, and family planning in many countries.
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  14. 14

    A comprehensive guide to AIDS information. More than a hundred ways to teach about AIDS.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Education Department

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1987 Oct. 26 p.

    A comprehensive bibliography listing publications about AIDS is presented by the Education department of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. The publications listed are designed to help health/education professionals to inform, educate, and counsel others about AIDS. The publications are arranged in order by topic, with each entry annotated as to its unique feature. The unique feature describes whether an item is targeted for a specific audience, or has superb graphics, or is positive in tone. The topic divisions include: general; condoms; curricula; professional resources; drugs; persons with AIDS; safer sex; workplace; and young people. Audiovisuals are listed separately, as well as hotlines from across the country. Gay issues organizations, many national in scope, are provided. The final section of the booklet lists organizations, both educational and advocacy. Some of these groups offer clinical services, counseling, or referral.
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  15. 15

    Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA funded project on labour and family welfare education in organized sector in Zambia (September-October 1986).

    Valdivia LA; Friedman M

    Arlington, Virgina, Development Associates, 1986. iii, 71 p.

    This report evaluates the UNFPA-funded Labor and Family Welfare project in the Organized Sector of Zambia, Africa. The project targeted 3 key elements of the Organized Sector--motivation of leaders, training of educators, and in-plant workers' education. The project laid the groundwork for a major expansion of education and services at the workers' level. It has also led to a National Population Policy formulation. 18 recommendations are suggested with priority given to factory-level education and family planning service delivery. Additional funding for companies to motivate and educate workers regarding acceptance of family planning services is suggested, as well as increased training for economics, teachers, psychology teachers, and social workers to enable them to incorporate population education into their curriculums. Training activities were a major focus of the project. Increased training and educational materials about family planning, in the form of posters and handouts, should be produced and disseminated at the factory level, as well as to medical personnel. UNFPA, in accord with the Ministry of Health of Zambia, should ensure an adequate supply of contraceptives to the factories. Existing record keeping, reporting and scheduling practices should be improved, as well as the International Labor Organization (ILO) disbursement system. Short-term ILO consultants should be recruited to improve the project and its management, and 2 additional staff members, provided by the government, could help to implement the program at the plant level. 2 new vehicles should be purchased for full-time field staff to ensure availability to carry out project activities. In addition, the present accounting and recordkeeping of the ILO Lusaka office should be restructured to achieve more accurate monitoring of the use of project funds.
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  16. 16

    The cold chain status: June 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    [Unpublished] 1984. 13 p. (EPI/CCIS/84.3)

    This document summarizes the work performed during 1983 and the 1st half of 1984 to improve the vaccine cold chain for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). It provides a broad outline of the work being carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) and summarizes major equipment developments. The state of the cold chain is described under 3 headings: cold chain management, training, and equipment. In recent years, the EPI has focused much effort on strengthening the weakest spots in the cold chain. The section of the report devoted to cold chain management describes progress in the development of management aids, such as indicators to monitor the cold chain, and an equipment maintenance and spare parts project. Additionally, it summarizes the current situation with the cold chain support services and projects in the countries and draws attention to the results of recent cold chain studies. There are 5 types of chemical indicators in use in the cold chain, and in 1983 a document was issued giving an update on the current status of field trials and feedback on routine use. These indicators are outlined. Cold chain training has been provided on a continuing basis to health workers and technicians. Over the past 5 years several audiovisual aids for cold chain training have been prepared: 3 films, 7 posters, 2 slide sets, and 3 stickers. 3 courses of cold chain training are being used at this time: a revised version of "Manage the Cold Chain" from the mid-level managers course; logistics and cold chain course for primary health care; and refrigerator repair technicians course. Development of equipment for the cold chain has fallen into 3 main areas: finding and testing existing equipment, modifying existing equipment so that it will work better in tropical conditions, and developing new equipment for the cold chain that cannot be found on the open market.
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  17. 17

    Report of working group on training methodology of population education.

    Shroti KS; Seshachalam P; Iyer J; Khan S; Coloane JF; Rao HK; Kaddu MR; Matarwala RP; Chaterji RP; Chandrasekhar Y

    In: Population education in rural development, a report of the National Workshop on Integration of Population Education in Agriculture Extension and Rural Development Programmes, Bangalore, May 22-28, 1978, organised by the Government of India in colloboration with Food and Agriculture Organization and Family Planning Foundation of India. New Delhi, India, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Dept. of Rural Development [1978]. 136-43.

    A working group was established on training methodology for population education in India. It assessed the training needs of different functionaries, identified the trainers, suggested methods and materials for training, and identified training institutions. Training should be organized for the following categories: village level functionaries, Block and District level functionaries, administrators and policy makers, and trainers. Population education should be built into the regular curricula and provided through mobile units for those already on the job. The Union Government should seek collaboration and cooperation of international agencies for development of teaching materials and audio-visual aids. A comprehensive manual should be prepared and continuously enriched. In dependent research in the concept, content and methodology of education should be promoted. Funds should be provided by the Central Government and, if necessary, international agencies. National level voluntary organizations should also be involved in funding and undertaking innovative projects. Training of functionaries working in the field of agricultural extension and rural development is a pre-requisite for launching the population education programs. State level workshops should be organized within the first 6 months to help the State Governments in formulating plans. A monitoring cell should be established in the Central Government and at the State level.
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  18. 18

    IPPF/UNESCO Experts Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audio-Visual Aids and Teaching Materials, 20th - 23rd October, 1971, IPPF, London, S.W.1. Background paper.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1971. [33] p.

    Significantly for this International Planned Parenthood Federation/UNESCO Meeting on Clearing House Facilities for Audiovisual Aids and Teaching Materials, the proportion of work and of funding devoted to education, information, and training is steadily increasing. Program activities in need of audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: components designed to motivate people to practice family planning and to persuade opinion leaders to support program objectives (face-to-face communication and mass media outlets); training courses; and the education of government officials, opinion leaders, the community, young people both in and out of school, and family planning acceptors. Discussion of the present state of clearing house facilities for audiovisual aids and teaching materials covers the following: UN agencies, government activities, nongovernment organizations. UNESCO, WHO, FAO, ILO, AND UNICEF have services in audiovisual materials, including the production and distribution of films, photographs, and printed materials. These services illustrate the broad areas of activity of each agency and until the present time family planning and population problems have not featured very prominently in these materials. Many of them are used extensively in family planning programs because they demonstrate the health and socioeconomic development aspects to which family planning is related. Materials produced by the specialized agencies circulate through regional and national offices and are at the disposal of other agencies for loan usually without charge. Donor governments vary in the emphasis they place on educational materials. The Population Council is a nongovernmental organization which has been particularly active in the past in the production and distribution of audiovisual aids and teaching mterials. Among the universities, the Carolina Population Center has established an educational materials unit which produces audiovisual aids for use at home and overseas. The IPPF houses a rapidly growing collection of films, slides, and filmstrips, printed materials, nonprojected aids, and models relating to family planning motivation, training, population, and sex education. Some factors to be taken into account in considering the feasibility of establishing an international clearing house for audiovisual aids and teaching materials include: means of assessing levels of expressed demand; possibility of stimulating demand for audiovisual aids and teaching materials in family planning information and education programs; possiblity of promoting knowledge and understanding of the proposed clearing house at all levels of operation; extent of personnel equipped and trained to utilize audiovisual aids and teaching materials; adaptability of materials to local situations; desirability of a central, regional, or combination structure; and funding. Factors to be considered in formulating a blueprint for an international clearing house include: scope of materials to be handled by clearing house; problems inherent in identification and collection of materials; need for services to support circulation of materials; international transportation of materials; storage; need for a reporting system and evaluation; and policy with regard to meeting clients' equipment requirements and to payment by client.
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  19. 19

    Primary health care bibliography and resource directory.

    Montague J; Montague S; Cebula D; Favin M

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations [WFPHA], 1984 Aug. vii, 78 p. (Information for Action)

    This bibliograph contains 4 parts. Part 1 is anannotated bibiography covering the following topics: an overview of health care in developing countries; planning and management of primary health care (PHC): manpower training and utilization; community participation and health education; delivery of health services, including nutrition, maternal and child health, family planning, medical and dental care; disease control, water and sanitation, and pharmaceutical; and auxiliary services, Part 2 is a reference directory covering periodicals directories, handbooks and catalogs, in PHC, as well as computerized information services, educational aids and training programs, (including audiovisual and other teaching aids), and procurement of supplies and pharmaceuticals. Also given are lists of international and private donor agencies, including development cooperation agencies, and directories of foundations and proposal writing. Parts 3 and 4 are the August 1984 updates of the original May 1982 edition of the bibliography.
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  20. 20

    Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.

    Andrews D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 167-76.

    Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
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  21. 21

    Population Education Clearing House, Population Education Program Service, UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia & the Pacific.

    Villanueva CL

    In: Thailand. Ministry of Public Health. National Family Planning Programme. Thai Population Clearing House/Documentation Centre In-service training on population/family planning information system, 19 May-9 July 1981, Bangkok. Bangkok, Thailand, Ministry of Public Health, National Family Planning Programme, Thai Population Clearing House/Documentation Centre, [1981?]. 25-30. (ASEAN Australian Project No. 3 Developing/Strengthening National Population Information Systems and Networks in ASEAN Countries: Thailand)

    The Population Education Clearing House of the Unesco Population Education Programme Service acquires and disseminates population education information to professionals in Asia and Oceania. Its objectives are: to assist member states in organizing their information services; serve as an information resource base; promote inter-country flow of information; and serve as a link between centers in Asia and Oceania. The collection is composed of population education materials, and includes training programs, instructional materials, research studies, and program descriptions. Some of the services that the Clearing House provides are: literature searching, current awareness, selective dissemination of information (SDI), translation of documents, technical and advisory assistance, and audiovisual support. To be included in the mailing list, users only need to complete a reader's profile and survey questionnaire.
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  22. 22

    In-service training on population/family planning information system, 19 May-9 July 1981, Bangkok.

    Thailand. Ministry of Public Health. National Family Planning Program. Thai Population Clearing-House / Documentation Centre

    Bangkok, Thailand, Ministry of Public Health. National Family Planning Programme, Thai Population Clearing House/Documentation Centre, [1981]. 321 p. (ASEAN Australian Project No. 3 Developing/Strengthening National Population Information Systems and Networks in ASEAN Countries: Thailand)

    This report provides several modules for developing information management skills in population information. After describing the main functions of the ESCAP Population Division Clearing House and Information Section, and the Population Education Clearing House of Unesco, the report breaks down the training program into the following sections: technical processes (acquisitions, cataloging and classification, and preservation); literature searching; abstracting; collection development; collection maintenance; networking; library automation; and information storage and retrieval. Each module is accompanied by training exercises; the section on technical processes contains a glossary.
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  23. 23

    Communication for population and family welfare programmes: the role of Unesco.


    Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 29 p.

    UNESCO's population program involves communication. Since 1974, the program has stressed the importance of studying the interrelationsihps between demographic and socioeconomic factors and of integrating population activities with overall development efforts. The Regional Advisor's Offices play a vital role in the program. These advisors and their staff are currently in Bangkok, Thailand; Beirut, Lebanon; Dakar, Senegal; Nairobi, Kenya; and Santiago, Chile. 2 groups require training in population communication; those who are communications and media specialists, and those who are in population-related activities. To train these people, UNESCO organizes courses and workshops; inserts courses into the curricula of universities that train communication specialists; sends people abroad on fellowships; and organizes study tours. UNESCO supports research with implications for population communication. The agency's assistance in planning, administration and evaluation areas takes 2 main forms: providing advisory services; and issuing publications on the subject. Publications and films are listed at the end. UNESCO is involved in experimentation with: 1) communication materials and techniques in pilot projects; 2) development of communication materials aimed at general or target audiences in specific countries; and 3) development of communication materials for use in training programs. In the area of communication, several women's projects are under way. Another form of UNESCO support for population communication is the diffusion and exchange of information and materials. UNESCO should continue to expand its support for population communication activities; training will remain a pressing need. Particular groups will need to be addressed and specific issues dealt with, as will population distribution, and the relationship between population concerns and human rights. Specific suggestions are given as to when, where, and how UNESCO can be useful.
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  24. 24

    Family planning communication reach study.

    Waliullah S; Nessa S

    Dacca, Bangladesh, Directorate of Population Control and Family Planning Research, Evaluation, Statistics and Planning Wing, April 1977. 30 p.

    Upon completion of a report on Research Inventory and Analysis of Family Planning Communication Research in Bangladesh, the convenor of Task Force II proposed a study on Family Planning Communication Audience, a top priority study, as documented by the Task Force II in its report submitted earlier to the government. The objectives of this study are to: 1) examine if 2 steps or a multi-step communication model is in operation in Bangladesh; 2) determine which of the media has the largest audience; 3) determine the contribution of each of the mass media in disseminating the family planning message; and 4) determine socioeconomic characteristics of various media audiences. The sample design included exposure to 5 mass media: newspapers, television, radio, audiovisual van, and village bard. The study shows that: 1) both groups of respondents (male and female) have been exposed to the mass media in varying degrees, but that the audiences, after receiving the message, did not keep it confined to themselves; 2) the 2 and 3 step model of communication is in operation in the sample population; 3) in terms of exposure, the data show that radio had larger audiences among both male and female respondents; 4) newspapers, radio, and television audiences differ from the audiences of the other 2 media--village bard, and audiovisual van--in the following areas: education, age, income, and parity. Recommendations are made for further development of family planning communication programs through the mass media: 1) More news, advertisements, pictures, and features printed in the daily newspapers "Ittefaq," and "Dainik Bangla," which are widely read by rural populations; 2) installation of radios and television sets at public sites will enable public service announcements on family planning to be viewed; 3) the musical drama, "Jatragan," by the village bard is highly effective in delivering the family planning message; 4) future studies should include control groups for each of the 5 media audiences; and 5) since women cannot join men in viewing the audiovisual van performances, special arrangement should be made for them.
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  25. 25

    Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.

    Waliullah S; Mia A; Rahman M

    [Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.

    Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
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