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  1. 1

    Technical assistance in research and evaluation, national and state (Benue, Rivers, Niger, Kwara) level projects.

    Kiragu K

    [Unpublished] 1991. [4], 25 p.

    Johns Hopkins University/Population Communications Services (JHU/PCS) Research and Evaluation Officer Karungari Kiragu visited Nigeria October 7-November 7, 1991, to orient new Lagos-based research and evaluation officers to the JHU/PCS evaluation unit and procedures; assist JHU/Lagos and the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria evaluate national music and logo campaigns with a household survey, clinic service statistics, and exit interviews; assist JHU/Lagos staff and Research and Marketing Services with an audience research project, and review focus group discussions and in-depth interview results; assist JHU/Lagos staff with evaluation plans for ongoing activities in Benue, Rivers, and Niger; and assist JHU/Lagos and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council evaluate Family Life Education activities. All of these objectives were accomplished. While project proposals were originally to be reviewed for Kwara, Kano, Akwa Ibom, and Cross Rivers, priorities were realigned to allow greater focus upon the national music and logo campaigns, as well as the incorporation of new evaluation activities in Benue, Rivers, Niger, and Kwara. Consultants were hired to conduct the music and logo evaluations, several meetings were held to organize the 2 surveys, tentative dates were set for data collection, data collection instrument development commenced, early arrangement for state level evaluation in Benue and Niger was undertaken, and plans were finalized to begin audience research. Specific activities for participating parties are recommended in the report, followed by a comprehensive list of persons contacted during the visit.
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  2. 2

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  3. 3

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  4. 4

    CDD in Kenya: policy and research on home treatment.

    Spain P

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1991 Jun. [10] p. (Occasional Operations Papers; USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)

    The paper presents results from diarrheal disease control (CDD) activities in Kenya. A World Health Organization Diarrheal Diseases Household Case Management Survey of 23,884 children under 5 years of age indicates a high use of recommended fluids before and during episodes of diarrheal illness. ORT use was high, while ORS use and volume were low, with better diarrheal management practiced in Western Kenya. Children with diarrhea in districts with CDD communication program are more likely to receive proper care. For home treatment of diarrhea, the Kenyan Food and Fluids Panel recommends mothers to use uji, a locally available porridge, liberal quantities of plain water, fresh fruit juices, fermented milk, and coconut water; exclusive breastfeeding for the 1st 4 months of life; continued feeding of at least 5 times/day during diarrhea; and improved, targeted communication for behavior change especially among mothers of at-risk children. Additional research on food, feeding, communications, and marketing ORS was also recommended. Principal research findings of the survey are discussed in detail. Messages most effective in improving the management of diarrhea include emphasizing feeding during diarrhea, stressing the use of nutritional fluids, continued hesitation of ORS promotion until 1.2- liter packets become generally available through the health system, and emphasizing the rare need for drug therapy of diarrhea. Recognizing signs suggesting the need for health facility treatment should be reinforced.
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  5. 5

    The population IEC operation in Eastern and Southern Africa. Operational research report one: inventory overview.

    Johnston T

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 57 p. (Operational Research Report 1)

    In the context of rapid population growth in Africa, population information, education, and communication (IEC) programs and projects have been implemented in the region. An initial report was prepared describing population IEC operational research in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Fieldwork on the research project was conducted by a small team of researchers who surveyed/inventoried population IEC program and project development. The study was conducted in resource terms, attempting to identify operational problems or deficiencies posing obstacles to improved field activity effectiveness and efficiency. 7 questionnaires were developed and presented to program and project directors, managers, and coordinators to find detailed answers to specific concerns and questions. Researchers wanted to know the extent to which population IEC programs and projects were part of any larger national effort of development support communication, the variety and frequency of different IEC activities within the operation, where programs were failing to meet objectives, and the quantity and quality of available program resources, especially for training and materials development. Personal views, perceptions, and opinions of the interviewees were also sought. Additional questions addressed the relevance and significance of population IEC research to fertility management and communication strategy development. Compiling directories of people and institutions involved in population IEC research, training, and materials production and dissemination was a final purpose of the questionnaires. Common program features are highlighted.
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  6. 6

    Report from Consultation on Psychosocial Research Needs in HIV Infection and AIDS, Geneva, 25-28 May 1987.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 18 p. (WHO/GPA/SBR/89.2)

    A meeting was held to review the state of research upon the behavioral aspects of HIV transmission, the social factors associated with it, and the effectiveness of control measures, and to consider priorities and future social and behavioral research directions. Despite advances in the virology and immunology of AIDS, much research is called for regarding behavioral aspects of HIV transmission and the impact of AIDS on individual and community life. Such knowledge may be applied in developing effective intervention strategies. The report discusses the nature of the problem, followed by specific topics in the social and behavioral aspects of HIV transmission. Sexual behavior, homosexuality, prostitution, substance abuse, and injections and other skin piercing practices are covered. Social perceptions and explanatory systems are explored, along with coping strategies broken into family children, psychosocial expression, counselling, and family, marriage and reproduction subtopics. Recommendations for research are set forth in the report, aimed at high risk behavior, explanatory models/systems, and coping responses. A variety of research methodologies are suggested, and include population-based surveys, psychometric, ethnographic, and other psychosocial approaches as well as focus group methods. Brief closing mention is made of translating research into action, technical working groups, collaborating centers, a research steering committee, and communications/information.
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  7. 7

    Report of the Meeting on Research Priorities Relating to Women and HIV / AIDS, Geneva, 19-20 November 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. 13 p. (GPA/DIR/91.2)

    A meeting of international experts was held to identify gaps in knowledge essential to design and implement AIDS prevention and control programs as they relate to women. Fundamental to successful research efforts are the need for increased access of women to training and participation in research, new consideration of the neglect of gender specificity in existing research, and the need for such research to contribute to the empowerment of women. Specific research needs in epidemiology, behavioral research, and social and economic aspects of HIV/AIDS were identified, ranked according to their potential for contributing to the prevention and control of AIDS, relevance for developing countries, and feasibility. 12 specific research questions are posed in the report, and cover issues such as the determinants of HIV transmission, contraceptive method impact, diagnosis and treatment of STDs in women, social and economic support, women's empowerment, and the risks of female health care provider HIV infection. Additionally, HIV infection natural history differences between men and women are compared, followed by consideration of psychosocial stress, monitoring, HIV and pregnancy, and research protocol development. Background, key issues, reports of the working groups, and recommendations are included in the report.
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  8. 8

    Visual communication materials for rural audiences: re-orienting artists and copy-writers.

    Chen P


    An agency of the Indian government cooperated with a United Nations Children Fund to produce posters for the child survival and development program in India. To make the posters and other visual communications more effective a workshop was planned for the artists, visualizers, and copywriters. Previous experience had shown that some visual materials were not always oriented to the local contexts and villages often misinterpreted the messages of these materials. The 12 day workshop was designed to assist artists to better understand the audiences needs. there had been little pretesting of art work for health communication and no consideration of the visual literacy of the audience. The first project in the workshop consisted of artists and copywriters visiting villages to pretest posters presently in circulation. After some reservations they quickly found that the villagers perception of the posters was entirely different than the message being conveyed. By going back and getting the villagers perceptions of common sights related to maternal and child health, the artist could better prepare communication materials. They also collected basic sociological data at each village. New posters were then prepared with the help of inputs from midwives, nurses, and other health care workers. By pretesting these materials again they were able to clarify the messages, and repeated testing showed the posters were more understandable. The participants in the workshop found that visual communications materials demand proper understanding of the subject matter and the audience. Pretesting of materials is necessary before production, and changes should be made to reflect the local culture and surroundings. Posters for rural illiterate audiences should have the minimum written text needed and visual literacy must be assessed.
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  9. 9

    AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    Msimuko AK

    IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1988 Apr; 22(2):3-4.

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.
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