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[Unpublished] 1990 Oct. iii, 29 p.This summary provides key background information for the design and development of a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project in Venezuela. The country situation is described by providing a map; graphs illustrating population growth, age structure, total fertility rate, and infant mortality rate; the demographic characteristics of the population; the social situation; and leading economic indicators and factors. The population/family planning (FP) environment is then described in terms of the national population policy and goals, the legal and regulatory environment, the media, other international donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of population, and the commercial contraceptive market. Available data are then presented on contraceptive usage by methods, the most available methods in the country, discontinuation, abortion, maternal age, needs, desired family size, and contraceptive awareness. The summary lists the following implications for project design from the point of view of the consumer: 1) the most recent data (1977) indicated an unmet need for FP, but more recent data must be obtained to access current demand; 2) more data are needed on the benefits and barriers to oral contraceptive and condom use; 3) data are needed on current use rates, sources of supply, and knowledge of correct use of oral contraceptives (OCs); 4) a significant target population exists for OCs and condoms; 5) marketing strategies should influence women to use modern contraceptives instead of abortion to limit family size. Project implications resulting from the market situation are that 1) despite the fact that commercial distribution networks within urban centers (83% of the population) are well-developed, contraceptives are not widely available at the retail level and are expensive; 2) obstacles to the commercial contraceptive industry exist at the importer, retailer, and consumer levels; and 3) most homes have radios and televisions, but all advertising must be government-approved, and the government has never approved contraceptive advertising. Appended to this document are charts showing 1) fertility rates by region, 2) urban and rural population growth, 3) an analysis of the urban population, 4) the incidence of abortion among current contraceptive users, 5) an analysis of the female population of reproductive age, 6) the age breakdown of women who desire no more children, 7) the contraceptive method used by women who desire no more children, and 8) desired family size.
[Unpublished] 1990 Mar 6. vi, 71 p.Men may impede broader use of family planning methods by women in many countries. Efforts have therefore been made to reach men separately in order to promote greater acceptance and use of male or female contraceptive methods. Typically, programs may encourage men to allow partners to use contraception; persuade men to adopt a more active, communicative role in decision making on contraceptive use; and/or promote the use of male methods. This paper presents findings from male involvement program initiatives in 60 developing countries since 1980. Male involvement programs are clearly needed, and condom use should be encouraged for protection against both pregnancy and HIV infection. Given their relatively low cost per couple-year of protection, social marketing programs should be encouraged to promote condom sales. Employment-based programs, despite relatively high start-up costs, have also generated large increases in condom use. Both condom and vasectomy use have been increased through mass media campaigns, yet more campaigns should address AIDS. Clinic services and facilities should be made more attractive to men, and new print materials are warranted. Community-based distribution programs have been found to be great sources of information and supplies, especially in rural areas, and male adolescents are especially in favor of telephone hotlines. Little information exits on the effectiveness and costs of programs targeting organized groups. Further, youth-oriented programs generally reach their intended audiences, but are relatively expensive for the amount of contraceptive protection provided. Finally, a positive image must be promoted for the condom through coordinated media presentations, user and worker doubts of efficacy must be eliminated, and regular condom supplies ensured. Recommendations are included for policy, research, public education, the World Health Organization, national AIDS prevention programs, and family planning agencies.
CURRENT SCIENCE. 1990 Jul 25; 59(13-14):710-3.The Government of India (GOI) founded the National Diarrhoea Management Programme in 1985 to address a leading public health problem which kills >1.5 million children every year. GOI and UNICEF based the program on 3 assumptions: rural Indian mothers do not perceive diarrhea as a serious problem; they do not give food and fluids to their child during diarrhea; and they do not refer their ill child to a medical practitioner. It has since conducted various studies to look at current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers towards diarrhea. Research revealed that indeed mothers did not consider diarrhea a problem until after 4-5 loose stools. Further they did not believe diarrhea could cause death. They only took action when the child with diarrhea did not improve. On the other hand, research showed that 98% of the mothers continued to breast feed or give their child fluids during a diarrhea episode. Nevertheless 70% only gave their child <100 ml or fluid at a time, <3 times/day. Most also fed their child, but usually in smaller quantities. 1 study indicated that most mothers (65%) consulted a medical practitioner, usually a private practitioner, during the most recent diarrhea episode. The medical practitioner was not necessarily a qualified physician and usually prescribed antidiarrheals, even though he knew of ORS. GOI and market research agencies have considered the results of these studies to design advertising and education campaigns that would persuade and convince caretakers and medical practitioners to treat diarrhea in children with oral rehydration solution (ORS) or a sugar salt solution. Moreover the program has restructured its plan to include reinforcing the use of well known home available fluids and foods and promoting the ORS packet as the 1st response to the 1st response to the 1st loose stool.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 6,  p.Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.