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Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. 1982 Fall-Winter; 8(2):31-4.This study investigates the contraceptive decision-making processes of 132 sexually active 15 to 19 year old girls. The subjects completed a questionnaire designed to elicit information on their assessment of the personal and social costs of contraceptive use; the personal and social benefits of pregnancy, and their biological ability to become pregnant. Approximately 175 questionnaires were collected from 3 Planned Parenthood clinic sites in Indiana. The only questionnaire item which significantly predicted contraceptive use was the girl's assessment of the financial costs related to contraceptive use. The study confirmed several demographic trends demonstrated in earlier empirical studies: the older a sexually active girl becomes, between the ages of 15 and 19, the more likely she is to be a good contraceptor and the longer a sexually active girl has been dating a particular person the more likely she is to be a good contraceptor. Within the sexually active subsample, only 6.1% agreed that hindrance to spontaneity was a reason for nonuse of contraception, and only 7.1% stated that their partner objected to birth control use. The common assumption that teenagers do not like to appear prepared for sex received only minimal support: 15% said they did not like to think of themselves as prepared, and 8% said they did not like their partners to think of them as prepared for sex. A theme of general embarrassment over the whole process of obtaining birth control was evident, however: 47% said they found going to a clinic for birth control embarrassing; 53.5% said going to a private doctor was embarrassing; and 61.2% agreed that buying foam or condoms in a drug store embarrassing. The study attempted to determine which of the costs of contraception, and which of the benefits of pregnancy, are perceived by teenagers to weigh most heavily in their own informal process of deciding whether or not to use contraception.
Kwaluseni, Swaziland, University College of Swaziland Department of Law, Law and Population Project, 1982. 75 p.This report describes the findings of a 2-year research project conducted principally by the Law Department of the University College of Swaziland with input from the Geography Department and the Ministry of Health, funded by UNFPA. The study questions the extent to which the legal system can be used as an instrument of population policy and development. In this context population policy and development can be characterized as processes which increase approximation to the goal of an optimum population. The different essays dealing with the various aspects of law and population underline the multidimensional and complex character of the population problem. The monograph is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 describes the population including spatial distribution, age-sex distribution and the implications of population growth for development in the area. Part 2 describes the institutions governing family growth and planning including traditional methods of birth control and attitudes towards contraception. The laws of marriage, illegitimacy, and adoption are discussed including the Common Law and Statutory Position, and the Income Tax Law is described. Part 3 contains discussions on the uses of the resources of the country from a legal point of view. This includes theory of property law, the morphogenesis of property regimes and 4 alternatives suggested for the future of property law in Swaziland. Population and development is an interactive process because what can be achieved through access to land affects what can be achieved in social investment, education, and health. This study attempts to deal with the larger social setting, the socioeconomic matrix, than with technical legal provisions in order to avoid the narrow analyses of the past.
[Unpublished] Dec. 1982. 44 p. (UNFPA Project no. BGD/80/PO1)The Population Education Program started in July, 1976 in the Formal Education System of Bangladesh, funded by UNFPA is reviewed. The study was designed to find out how the students and teachers have conceptualized the seriousness of the present rate of growth of population at their own levels, and how that has affected their perception about family size and other population issues; the case of married teachers, their contraceptive behavior, present family size and additional number of children desired by them. Recommendations for the 2nd phase of the program were made and most were accepted. This report is based on discussions with the officials of the ministry of Education, PEP project personnel, Population Control and Family Planning Division, NIEAER, Universal Primary Education Project, interviews with teachers and headmasters of primary, secondary and teacher training schools, DPEO's and Education officers. Analyses of textbooks, teacher guides and other documents and reports are included. The report includes a review of relevant research projects, an overview of the status of project activities, the integration of population education content in Bengali arithmetic, social studies and science textbooks, training workshops for teachers, and program management concerns including personnel, workload, monitoring supervision and financial problems. 10 appendices giving very specific information in such areas as the content of Population Education in training modules, interview schedule for teachers and resource persons and the list of persons met are included.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Oct. 4-7, 1982. 21 p.Discusses the factors responsible for the decline of male acceptance of vasectomy over the past decade. The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) is a nonprofit organization working in the United States which helps funding of similar programs in other developed and developing countries. Reasons for the decline of vasectomy acceptance include the lack of attention paid to male sterilization in countries with family planning programs, the introduction of new technology for female sterilization, the introduction of new effective methods of contraception, and the exaggerated sexual role of the male and the need to protect his virility. The author reviews successful vasectomy programs and finds that, to be successful, a program should have strong leadership, a focussed design, clinic hours that would not interfere with patients' working schedules, and should pay attention to the needs of men, e.g., emphasizing that vasectomy does not cause impotency. The program should also have a community-based orientation, since all the services are not hospital-based and can be brought to the client's home, thereby emphasizing the minor nature of the surgery. AVS believes that vasectomy as a means of family planning can be effective. It is safe, inexpensive, simple, and deliverable. A special fund was allocated in 1983 to stimulate the development of several pilot and demonstration projects in a variety of countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1982. 68 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 551)This paper outlines the inclusion of communication support in various lending sectors of the World Bank, describes how communication support activities should be designed and carried out during the project cycle, and addresses some common problems and issues that should be kept in mind when developing and implementing these activities. Communication support refers to information, motivation, or education activities which are designed to help achieve the objectives of a parent project through creating a favorable social climate for change. Usually such activities are financed under the same loan as the parent project. By fiscal year 1979 the World Bank had lent some US$183 million for communication support, usually for education, agriculture and rural development, and population, health, and nutrition. Potential benefits of communication support include facilitating change among project populations, helping create an effective implementing agency, coping with negative behavior or attitudes, and helping prevent negative impact. The World Bank experiences with communication support in 7 sectors of Bank lending are briefly described, including education; population, health and nutrition; agriculture; urban projects; water and wastes; transportation; and telecommunications. Various steps in the design process are then detailed, including identification of institutional arrangements, definition of objectives, identification and segmentation of the people to be reached, identification of the timing and time frame, selection of channels, decisions on communication style, technique and content, design of pretesting, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, and costing. Among issues in the design of communication support programs that are discussed are inclusion of communication support versus managerial complexity; centralization versus decentralization; single agency versus multi-agency responsibility; in-house responsibility versus contracting out; mass media versus personal channels; and overdesign versus underdesign.
Lexington, Massachusetts, Women's International Network News, 1982 Nov. 338 p.This report documents the existence and prevalence in Africa and in other regions of the world of the cultural practice of female circumcision and genital mutilation (FC/GM). This serious problem is examined so that it can be abolished. Until recently the problem was hidden from the public, and most health, government and international agency officials denied that the practices were widespread. In 1979 at a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on traditional health practices, the problem received international attention. Recommendations made by the seminar participants urged nations to adopt policies to abolish FC/GM, to establish commissions to coordinate activities aimed at abolishing the practices, and to intensify efforts to educate the public and health professionals about the problem. In 1984 it was estimated that 79.97 million women in Africa had FC/GM operations performed at some time during their life. The proportion of women who have had FC/GM operations was almost 100% in Somalia, 90% in Ethiopia, 80% in Sudan, Mali, and Sierra Leone, and 60% in Kenya, Ivory Coast, and Gambia. Information is provided on 1) the extent of the practices, 2) the health problems associated with FC/GM, 3) the 1979 WHO seminar, 4) the history of FC/GM, and 5) the cultural beliefs supporting the practices. Case histories provide detailed information on the practices in 11 African countries, 4 countries on the Arab Pennisula, and 2 Asian countries, including Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The existence of FC/GM practices in many other countries, including Western nations, is also documented. These practices are also discussed in reference to the depressed status of women in many African countries, and the role of women in these countries is examined in regard to legal matters, education, employment, agriculture, family planning, development, and urbanization. Political factors hindering the abolition of the practices and the hesitancy of international agencies such as WHO, US Agency for International Development, and the UN Children's Fund, to deal with the problem are discussed. There is some evidence that FC/GM operations are being conducted in hospitals in a number of African countries, and efforts must be made to prohibit the introduction of these practices into the modern health care system. Suggestions are provided for action and education programs aimed at abolishing FC/GM practices. An annotated bibliograpy, containing 78 references, is also provided.