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[Unpublished] July, 1979. 49 p.This study assesses the effectiveness of family planning education in the Republic of Korea over the past 2 decades. Target populations in various metropolitan areas were studied regarding attitudes toward family planning knowledge, contraceptive behavior, media and personal contacts on family planning, number and gender preferences, and spacing preferences. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were taken into account. Statistics were compiled by area and analyses are presented. Use of more mass media is suggested to get information on family planning across to more people. It is important to extend the range and quality of family planning services, most especially to provide the best information about contraceptive methods.
Republic of Indonesia. Population education in schools and institutions of Islamic education and higher education. Population education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 11 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P06)This project summary concerns population education in schools of Islamic Education and Higher Education in Indonesia between 1979-81. Funding was provided by UNFPA and the Indonesian government. The long term objectives were to: 1) develop an understanding of population policies and programs in Indonesia, 2) develop an understanding of the factors causing population change and their relationship with the overall development of the country, and 3) develop means to critically examine population issues. Short term objectives were to: 1) conduct a pilot project for the introduction of population education into curricula of primary, secondary, and higher secondary schools (materials, methods, training of teachers), 2) introduce population education into a limited number of teacher training schools, and 3) introduce population education as an integral part of the undergraduate teaching program in all 14 State Islamic institutions.
New York, Population Council, 1979 Oct. 68 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 48)After outlining various problems posed by the growth or decline of population and the class of feasible means available to governments for dealing with them, the authors pose the question of whether important ethical issues are raised by interventionist policies actually in use today. These policy options are surveyed in detail and shown to fall into 3 categories of government intervention: 1) Limitations imposed on access to modern methods of fertility control. 2) Incentives and disincentives of various kinds. 3) Politically organized peer pressure. With regard to ethical issues raised by these policies, the authors invert the traditional procedure in the ethical literature of first providing an overarching ethical theory and then deducing consequences pertaining to particular issues -- in this case population controversies. Instead, they adopt a contextual and piecemeal approach to the ethical concerns which views ethics as a species of decision making, resting on agreed-upon premises and proceeding to substantive conclusions as to what sort of action should be taken in particular situations. Proceeding to examine the 3 sets of policies from this perspective, they find limitations on access and incentive programs ethically permissible provided certain safeguards and intuitive conditions are satisfied. The 2nd category -- politically organized peer pressure -- is found unethical except under stringent conditions and where other approaches have been tried first. In the final section of the paper, the authors clarify aspects of the ethical framework underlying their judgments on the policy and raise and discuss a number of subsidiary problems. (Author's)
Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 144(1):18-24. January 1979.The population problem is examined in terms of population policy in the U.S. over the past 25 years, the present status of population control, the future of population control, and the debate on strategy. In 1952 the Population Council was established, and this organization has provided significant leadership in the field ever since. Another milestone was passed in 1958 when Dr. Louis Hellman, then of Kings County Hospital, did battle with the New York City Commissioner of hospitals over his right as a doctor to fit a diabetic patient receiving welfare with a diaphragm. By the mid-1960s worldwide attention was directed to the problem of rapid population growth. Since the early 1970s the World Health Organization has increased its commitment to population. Nationally, the medical community, if not indifferent, has often taken an ultra-conservative view of the delivery of contraceptive services - kinds of personnel to deliver them, responsibilities of medical practitioners for the reproductive health of patients. Much headway has been made in reducing fertility. In the 1965-1975 period there have been declines of 20% or more in the crude birthrate. Declines occurred in such traditionally high-fertility areas as Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Thailand, Tunisia, North Vietnam, and the Indian Punjab. Countries that experienced declines ranging from 15-20% included Egypt, India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Yet, in other countries, little has happened to affect fertility even though the social and economic situation continues to deteriorate for the average family. There is no question that in time the effective regulation of fertility will spread around the world; the critical question is that of time. There are encouraging signs indicating that family planning programs can and do accelerate fertility decline. It is necessary to go beyond effective family planning and a rising age at marriage if birthrates are to come within the range of mortality rates.