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  1. 1

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume four. Techniques.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. v, 72 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. IV))

    This manual (volume 4) produced by the UN presents a number of practical training techniques that can be incorporated into the popular participation training to achieve specific objectives and to create a more varied and interesting experience. It also contains 5 elements essential in the evaluation of each technique, which includes objectives, settings, process, discussion and comments or preparation. Chapter 1 discusses the techniques for problem recognition, which include: 1) first steps in group activities; 2) perception exercises; 3) entering your own space and entering another's space; 4) force field analysis; 5) polling; 6) differences in perception; and 7) serialized posters. Chapter 2 describes the techniques for capacity building, which consist of: 1) village planner; 2) problem-solving posters; 3) the impertinent PERT chart; 4) need identification; 5) choosing a color; 6) inter-group competition in plan preparation; 7) inter-group collaboration in program implementation and 8) challenging conflicts within the Iwo village. Chapter 3 presents the techniques for attitude and value development through role playing, development of community, awareness of hidden motives, the fishbowl approach, difference between clear and unclear goals, charting group participation, application of empathy and ring-toss.
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  2. 2

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  3. 3

    Technical co-operation in the field of fertility and the family.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 467-76. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper refers to the substantive collaboration that the UN Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (DTCD) has provided in the field of fertility and family. The objectives are: 1) to present, within the framework of the structure of its program, a review of the Department's experience in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action; 2) to distill from this experience the major problems encountered as well as lessons learned; and 3) to synthesize from these a series of recommendations to improve technical co-operation activities. Within the the UN system, the DTCD is a major executing agency for projects funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) at the country, intercountry and global levels. The Department's experience in the implementation of the Plan of Action is primarily to provide developing countries with support to develop or improve national capacities for data collection, evaluation, analyses and presenting the data in a form responsive to users. The long-term objective of this undertaking is to assist governments in creating the capacity for conducting all types of demographic data collection and analysis and to increase the capacity of governments to utilize effectively the data and analysis resulting from censuses, surveys and vital registration systems. The purpose of the UN program of training in population is to establish within developing countries a cadre of professionals capable of establishing a body of demographic knowledge within their own countries. The goal of the majority of the projects on population policy and development planning is to assist governments in the process of incorporating population variables into the national development planning process. The Department's program generates a process of development in such a way that training creates the ability to design and conduct fertility surveys, the analysis of which can be used in the formulation of policy to be incorporated into national development plans. Problems encountered during the last decade of experience include: 1) the lack of importance placed on the analysis of census, survey and vital registration results in the preparation of fertility studies; 2) government motivation; 3) countries that have clear-cut policies on fertility have often not implemented them as integral parts of the national development strategy; and 4) the lack of an infrastructure and other national counterpart support for population projects. Several recommendations are proposed with respect to the provision of future technical co-operation.
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  4. 4

    Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.

    Waliullah S; Mia A; Rahman M

    [Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.

    Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
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  5. 5

    Notes on activities in the field of population.

    Jimlar Mutane. 1976 Feb; 1(1):191-202.

    The Committee for International Coordination of National Research (CICRED), formed by the UN in 1971, commissioned a number of national monographs on "Past, Present and Future Trends of Population" for African countries. A report on the UN programs of demographic training in Africa pinpoints governments, universities, and the UN as sponsors and centers for demographic training and education. The UN's program, in cooperation with African governments, the Economic Commission for Africa, the Conference of African Statisticians, and the Conference of African Planners, established statistical training centers at middle, intermediate, and high levels of competence in demographic statistics. Demographic teaching in UN sponsored demographic units in African universities provides for teaching and research programs. The Cairo Demographic Center has carried out a number of research projects which have helped in understanding demographic trends in the area it serves. It has established a program for team research, selecting different demographic topics for different years, and awarding fellowships for trainees. The Regional Institute for Population Studies in Ghana, the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques in the Republic of Cameroon, and the Cairo Demographic Center follow the same model with training in: substantive and technical demography; and ancillary subjects such as mathematics, statistics, sampling, survey and research methodology, sociology, economic development planning, genetics, and physiology of reproduction. The centers plan to provide field experiences to students by jointly sponsoring ad hoc demographic surveys in the host countries. Coordinators among different UN agencies meet annually to coordinate training activities. A survey of women from the Republic of Cameroon showed that women desire population growth; their ideal family size is 6; they desire family planning information; they want sex education taught in post primary institutions; they prefer polygamy; their ideal age of marriage is 18.
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  6. 6

    Proposal for program development in family health and population: West Africa.


    Unpublished, 1974. 59 p

    Recommended program strategy for the Ford Foundation in West Africa would concentrate upon delivery of integrated maternal-child health services including nutrition, immunizations, preventive and curative care for mothers and children. As a means of child spacing, family planning would be approved by the population, but population control programs per se at present run counter to West African ideals, and political resistance would probably result. In the context of high West African child mortality rates (e.g. from birth to 15 years a rate of 400-750 deaths per 1000 live births) a small family norm may be undesirable. Maternal-child health services are difficult to implement and little progress has been made in providing any component of maternal/child health or family planning on a nationwide level. Constraints on planning include the lack of preparation of medical and nursing practitioners for health planning, the problem of carrying out and interpreting research and small trials, the lack of a functioning interdisciplinary communications network for practitioners, lack of funds, and lack of appropriately trained manpower. Contraints on the production of action-oriented research are similar to contraints on planning of maternal-child health services. An optimal strategy for the Ford Foundation should cover many facets. Research and training should be developed in phases, and training should be reoriented to provide training within Africa for a critical mass of practitioners who concentrate on applied skills and can work in an interdisciplinary setting. Research should focus on developing a data base, creating tools for health planning, and improving the skills of researchers. Institution building, while necessary, should be undertaken cautiously, with the goal of developing a coordinating mechanism. The activities of the Population Council, USAID, UNFPA, WHO, IDRC, and the Dutch and Belgian governments in the area should be considered in the Ford Foundation's plans. An intensive effort in a limited geographic area is preferable to spreading resources too thinly over the whole region.
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  7. 7

    Report of evaluation of population education programme in Bangladesh.

    Sharma RC

    [Unpublished] Dec. 1982. 44 p. (UNFPA Project no. BGD/80/PO1)

    The Population Education Program started in July, 1976 in the Formal Education System of Bangladesh, funded by UNFPA is reviewed. The study was designed to find out how the students and teachers have conceptualized the seriousness of the present rate of growth of population at their own levels, and how that has affected their perception about family size and other population issues; the case of married teachers, their contraceptive behavior, present family size and additional number of children desired by them. Recommendations for the 2nd phase of the program were made and most were accepted. This report is based on discussions with the officials of the ministry of Education, PEP project personnel, Population Control and Family Planning Division, NIEAER, Universal Primary Education Project, interviews with teachers and headmasters of primary, secondary and teacher training schools, DPEO's and Education officers. Analyses of textbooks, teacher guides and other documents and reports are included. The report includes a review of relevant research projects, an overview of the status of project activities, the integration of population education content in Bengali arithmetic, social studies and science textbooks, training workshops for teachers, and program management concerns including personnel, workload, monitoring supervision and financial problems. 10 appendices giving very specific information in such areas as the content of Population Education in training modules, interview schedule for teachers and resource persons and the list of persons met are included.
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  8. 8

    Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Matthews P; Roque F; Valdivia L; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27, [8] p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.
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