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  1. 1

    In-house evaluation report on IPPF/CBD project: impact and effectiveness.


    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Community Based Distribution Department, October 31, 1976. 75 p

    Focus is on the progress and accomplishments to date of the various community-based distribution projects, particularly their impact and effectiveness. The only community-based distribution projects to which this report refers are those funded directly by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The report is organized in two parts: 1) Central Office Community-Based Distribution Projects; and 2) other IPPF community-based distribution projects. Effectiveness as used in this report refers to the nature and extent to which given community-based distribution projects have achieved their previously stated objectives and will be measured along three dimensions: l) the extent to which projects have been successful in recruiting participants; 2) the extent to which projects have improved method acceptability; and 3) the nature and extent of contraceptive use of effectiveness among the populations served by the projects. Impact refers to changes in prevailing community attitudes and conditions brought about by and consequent to community-based distribution activities. The data presented concerning the community-based distribution projects in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Korea, Barbados, and Lebanon show a high level of initial interest in family planning, relatively high initial method awareness and acceptability, and growing but still low practice rates, continuation rates, and use effectiveness. The collected evidence also demonstrated the importance of initial efforts to build a base of a large number of interested and motivated clients before allowing significantly reduced informational, educational and promotional efforts and prior to reliance on natural diffusion to promote further growth. Experiential information also suggests the importance of initial and continued support and encouragement from government officials, religious leaders, medical officers, and clinically oriented family planning workers.
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  2. 2

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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