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Arlington, Virginia, Camp Dresser and McKee International, Environmental Health Project, 2004 Mar. vi, 80 p. (Activity Report No. 128; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00011-00)The tools presented in this report relate to technical support provided by USAID through the Environmental Health Project (EHP) to the Public Private Partnership (PPP) for Handwashing with Soap Initiative, which was started by UNICEF and implemented with financial assistance from USAID and the World Bank. As part of USAID/EHP’s technical support, EHP worked with Howard Delafield International (HDI) and prepared a series of program/planning tools used in the preparation of the first-phase of the Nepal Handwashing with Soap Initiative. These tools were based on a literature review of “lessons learned” from the Central American Handwashing Inititiative, as well as a review of other background material prepared for other handwashing with soap activities, and were developed in partnership with UNICEF /Nepal during 2003. The planning tools can be used and/or adapted by other organizations, public or private sector, interested in initiating a PPP in their country. For more information on PPP initiatives, please refer to www.globalhandwashing.org. (excerpt)
AIDS. 1991; 5 Suppl 1:S177-81.This review gives greater weight to WHO/Global Program on AIDS (GPA)-supported knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) surveys that have been completed in several African countries, including the Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Mauritius, Rwanda, Sudan, Togo, and Tanzania. The percentage of individuals who had heard of AIDS ranged from 60% in Chad to 98% in Rwanda. Over 75% of respondents knew that AIDS is sexually transmitted. A similar proportion (except in Sudan) knew about perinatal transmission. Misconceptions nevertheless endure: e.g., over 40% of individuals in the Central African Republic, Mauritius, Togo, and Tanzania believed that insect bites transmit HIV. At least 20% of respondents in the Central African Republic, Lesotho, Mauritius, Rwanda, Togo, and Tanzania believed that HIV was transmitted through touching or sharing utensils/food. 29% of respondents in Togo, 27% of interviewees from Chad, 21% of individuals in Rwanda, and 19% of participants from Lesotho asserted that AIDS was curable. Only 40% of interviewees from Chad and 25% or fewer of respondents from Lesotho, Mauritius, Sudan, Togo, and Tanzania perceived themselves to be susceptible to AIDS. 80% or more of respondents, except from Chad, where the figure was only 23%, believed that AIDS could be prevented by behavior change. WHO/GPA data indicate that, despite widespread awareness of AIDS, the proportion who have heard of condoms varies from 33% in Chad and 39% in Togo to 77% in Lesotho and 84% in Mauritius. Excluding Mauritius, less than 20% of respondents spontaneously mentioned condoms as a mode of protection against HIV and less than 20% had ever used a condom. Data from the World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey closely support these observations, confirming that women's knowledge and use of condoms is lower in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. At present, condom use by women in union in Mauritius, Botswana, and Zimbabwe is 9%, 1%, and 1%, respectively, and under 1% elsewhere.