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  1. 1
    042029

    [The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.

    Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano [CELAM]

    Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)

    This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
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  2. 2
    016472

    [Society and procreation: the social factors that affect them] Societe et procreation: les facteurs sociaux qui l'influencent

    Gubbels R

    Brussels, Belgium, Editions de l'Universite de Bruxelles, 1981. 291 p. (In series: Etudes sur la Famille)

    This volume contains a collection of papers by members of the Study Group for Family Roles, an organization of scholars which pursues studies on family roles from both historical and analytical perspectives. The theme of the present volume is the control imposed by the collectivity on individual fertility behavior through mores, laws, sterotypes, and other means, and which is apparent in widely varying historical situations. The 10 articles concern Malthusian problems in archaic societies; voluntary birth control in the Roman empire; aspects of birth limitation in traditional Jewish society; Islam and contraception; social pressure and material incentives in Chinese demographic policy; social aspects of procreation in the Soviet Union; social aspects of precreation in Rumania and Hungary; procreation and education; attitudes of family planning personnel toward contraception in Belgium; and the role of the UN in family planning.
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  3. 3
    746473

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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  4. 4
    745593

    Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 5 p.

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a British colony in the South Pacific, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA was established in 1969 and the government is now integrating family planning into its Maternal and Child Health Services. Public opinion generally favors family planning and family planning education. Charts of services provided over a period of years by the FPA show increasing numbers of acceptors, with the IUD the contin ually increasing favorite. Current educational, research, and evaluation work is summarized. Other organizations have aided in the campaign for family planning.
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  5. 5
    723681

    Iran (Profile).

    Friesen JK; Moore RV

    Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.

    The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
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  6. 6
    712010

    Long acting steroid formulations.

    Rudel HW; Kincl FA

    In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.

    A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
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  7. 7
    701730

    Ghana.

    Gaisie SK; Jones SB

    Country Profiles. 1970 Oct; 1-12.

    The report gives population trends and the status of family planning projects in Ghana. A general background account of Ghana's demographics (size and growth patterns, redistribution trends, urban/rural distribution, religious and ethnic composition, economic status, literacy, future trends, and social/economic groups and attitudes) is discussed. The relationships of national income, size and quality of the labor force, agricultural labor and productivity, public education, and health to the population's growth is summarized. Development of a population policy is described along with major recommendations for a national policy. The organization and structure of the national family planning program is set forth along with a table of "planning targets for increasing the use of contraceptives". Current practices of birth control are reviewed; supportive state and international agencies' roles are discussed; a prognosis of population planning efforts concludes the report.
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  8. 8
    032908

    The Vatican and population growth control. Why an American confrontation?

    Mumford SD

    Humanist. 1983 Sep-Oct; 43(5):18-24, 34.

    The writer's purpose is to document why an American confrontation with the Vatican over its anti-family planning efforts is a prerequisite to removal of this obstruction. The role of the Roman Catholic Church is seen as an important factor in thwarting organized family planning efforts; it is a variable which must enter population scientists' search for the determinants of fertility. Reasons for which communication with the leadership of the Church will not occur are discussed. Among those is the introduction, under President Reagan, of an administration which is the most Catholic in American history. In addition, international agencies' "population moneys" are being spent for "general development" and not on family planning. It is argued that Catholics have been primarily responsible for propagating the strategy "development will take care of population growth". The decline of the world population growth control effort in the past couple of years has coincided with the activities of the Pope and his position that immoral contraception must be fought. It is claimed that until this stronghold on predominantly Catholic countries is reduced, and the Vatican's strong influence on international donor agencies is eliminated, very little improvement in world efforts to control population growth can be expected. The Vatican's control over governments in predominantly Catholic countries is illustrated by excerpts from a study by a Canadian sociologist who points out that the world is faced with Vatican imperialism to some extent. This article concludes that nothing significant is likely to happen in population control efforts until the United States confronts the Vatican on this issue as the weak governments of most nations would not survive such as effort.
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