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  1. 1
    141686

    A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume four. Techniques.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. v, 72 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. IV))

    This manual (volume 4) produced by the UN presents a number of practical training techniques that can be incorporated into the popular participation training to achieve specific objectives and to create a more varied and interesting experience. It also contains 5 elements essential in the evaluation of each technique, which includes objectives, settings, process, discussion and comments or preparation. Chapter 1 discusses the techniques for problem recognition, which include: 1) first steps in group activities; 2) perception exercises; 3) entering your own space and entering another's space; 4) force field analysis; 5) polling; 6) differences in perception; and 7) serialized posters. Chapter 2 describes the techniques for capacity building, which consist of: 1) village planner; 2) problem-solving posters; 3) the impertinent PERT chart; 4) need identification; 5) choosing a color; 6) inter-group competition in plan preparation; 7) inter-group collaboration in program implementation and 8) challenging conflicts within the Iwo village. Chapter 3 presents the techniques for attitude and value development through role playing, development of community, awareness of hidden motives, the fishbowl approach, difference between clear and unclear goals, charting group participation, application of empathy and ring-toss.
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  2. 2
    064029

    Cote d'Ivoire. Finalization of Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project.

    Kumah OM

    [Unpublished] 1990. [5], 6, [2] p.

    Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
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  3. 3
    260771

    Proposal for program development in family health and population: West Africa.

    DE SWEEMER C

    Unpublished, 1974. 59 p

    Recommended program strategy for the Ford Foundation in West Africa would concentrate upon delivery of integrated maternal-child health services including nutrition, immunizations, preventive and curative care for mothers and children. As a means of child spacing, family planning would be approved by the population, but population control programs per se at present run counter to West African ideals, and political resistance would probably result. In the context of high West African child mortality rates (e.g. from birth to 15 years a rate of 400-750 deaths per 1000 live births) a small family norm may be undesirable. Maternal-child health services are difficult to implement and little progress has been made in providing any component of maternal/child health or family planning on a nationwide level. Constraints on planning include the lack of preparation of medical and nursing practitioners for health planning, the problem of carrying out and interpreting research and small trials, the lack of a functioning interdisciplinary communications network for practitioners, lack of funds, and lack of appropriately trained manpower. Contraints on the production of action-oriented research are similar to contraints on planning of maternal-child health services. An optimal strategy for the Ford Foundation should cover many facets. Research and training should be developed in phases, and training should be reoriented to provide training within Africa for a critical mass of practitioners who concentrate on applied skills and can work in an interdisciplinary setting. Research should focus on developing a data base, creating tools for health planning, and improving the skills of researchers. Institution building, while necessary, should be undertaken cautiously, with the goal of developing a coordinating mechanism. The activities of the Population Council, USAID, UNFPA, WHO, IDRC, and the Dutch and Belgian governments in the area should be considered in the Ford Foundation's plans. An intensive effort in a limited geographic area is preferable to spreading resources too thinly over the whole region.
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  4. 4
    020882

    The experience of the Association for Voluntary Sterilization in supporting vasectomy programs.

    Jezowski TW; Ahmad JS

    [Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Oct. 4-7, 1982. 21 p.

    Discusses the factors responsible for the decline of male acceptance of vasectomy over the past decade. The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) is a nonprofit organization working in the United States which helps funding of similar programs in other developed and developing countries. Reasons for the decline of vasectomy acceptance include the lack of attention paid to male sterilization in countries with family planning programs, the introduction of new technology for female sterilization, the introduction of new effective methods of contraception, and the exaggerated sexual role of the male and the need to protect his virility. The author reviews successful vasectomy programs and finds that, to be successful, a program should have strong leadership, a focussed design, clinic hours that would not interfere with patients' working schedules, and should pay attention to the needs of men, e.g., emphasizing that vasectomy does not cause impotency. The program should also have a community-based orientation, since all the services are not hospital-based and can be brought to the client's home, thereby emphasizing the minor nature of the surgery. AVS believes that vasectomy as a means of family planning can be effective. It is safe, inexpensive, simple, and deliverable. A special fund was allocated in 1983 to stimulate the development of several pilot and demonstration projects in a variety of countries.
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  5. 5
    017005

    Using communication support in projects: the World Bank's experience.

    Perrett HE

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1982. 68 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 551)

    This paper outlines the inclusion of communication support in various lending sectors of the World Bank, describes how communication support activities should be designed and carried out during the project cycle, and addresses some common problems and issues that should be kept in mind when developing and implementing these activities. Communication support refers to information, motivation, or education activities which are designed to help achieve the objectives of a parent project through creating a favorable social climate for change. Usually such activities are financed under the same loan as the parent project. By fiscal year 1979 the World Bank had lent some US$183 million for communication support, usually for education, agriculture and rural development, and population, health, and nutrition. Potential benefits of communication support include facilitating change among project populations, helping create an effective implementing agency, coping with negative behavior or attitudes, and helping prevent negative impact. The World Bank experiences with communication support in 7 sectors of Bank lending are briefly described, including education; population, health and nutrition; agriculture; urban projects; water and wastes; transportation; and telecommunications. Various steps in the design process are then detailed, including identification of institutional arrangements, definition of objectives, identification and segmentation of the people to be reached, identification of the timing and time frame, selection of channels, decisions on communication style, technique and content, design of pretesting, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, and costing. Among issues in the design of communication support programs that are discussed are inclusion of communication support versus managerial complexity; centralization versus decentralization; single agency versus multi-agency responsibility; in-house responsibility versus contracting out; mass media versus personal channels; and overdesign versus underdesign.
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  6. 6
    048849

    Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Matthews P; Roque F; Valdivia L; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27, [8] p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.
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