Your search found 5 Results
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992 Sep. 93 p.20 participants from 9 sub-Saharan countries and the UK discuss men's negative attitudes towards family planning (the leading obstacle to the success of family planning in Africa) at the November 1991 Workshop on Male Participation in Family Planning in The Gambia. Family planning programs have targeted women for 20 years, but they are starting to see the men's role in making fertility decisions and in transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are trying to find ways to increase men's involvement in promoting family planning and STD prevention. Some recent research in Africa shows that many men already have a positive attitude towards family planning, but there is poor or no positive communication between husband and wife about fertility and sexuality. Some family planning programs (e.g., those in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe) use information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (e.g., audiovisual material, print media, film, workshops, seminars, and songs) to promote men's sexual responsibility. IEC programs do increase knowledge, but do not necessarily change attitudes and practice. Some research indicates that awareness raising must be followed by counseling and peer promotion efforts to effect attitudinal and behavioral change. The sub-Saharan Africa programs must conduct baseline research on attitudes and a needs assessment to determine how to address men's needs. In Zambia, baseline research reveals that a man having 1 faithful partner for a lifetime is deemed negative. Common effective needs assessment methodologies are focus group discussions and individual interviews. Programs have identified various service delivery strategies to meet these needs. They are integration of family planning promotion efforts via AIDS prevention programs, income-generating schemes, employment-based programs, youth programs and peer counseling, male-to-male community-based distribution of condoms, and social marketing. Few programs have been evaluated, mainly because evaluation is not included in the planning process.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 6,  p.Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
ACTA PAEDIATRICA SCANDINAVICA. 1988 Mar; 77(2):183-90.The acceptance of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code for Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes has stimulated governments to design programs for the more energetic promotion of breastfeeding, but promotional efforts in developing nations may not be getting through to the mothers or may not be designed to meet their specific needs. In a prospective study in Istanbul, it was observed that all infants, whether delivered in a hospital or at home, received not only mixtures of sugar and water and other mixtures soon after birth and for about 1 week thereafter, but also complementary foods now and then until this became a regular practice. This pattern can be defined as regular complementary feeding or partial breastfeeding. Yet, the mothers described it as exclusive breastfeeding. The early and haphazard introduction of water and food in those environments where contamination is common exposes the infants to concentrated amounts of microorganisms which may overwhelm the immunological protection provided by breastmilk and also reduces the milk supply through insufficient stimulation of the breast. Exclusive breastfeeding should be encouraged, and irregular complementary feedings during the early weeks of life should be strongly discouraged, unless there is a medical indication. When exclusive breastfeeding is no longer sufficient, i.e., at the age of about 5 months, complementary feeding should be promoted. Programs for the promotion of breastfeeding have been criticized for devoting too much attention to the infant and little or no attention to the needs of the mother. In a given society, it may be difficult to promote breastfeeding if women regard it as a means of preventing them from improving their socioeconomic situation. Women who want to breastfeed their children should not be prevented from doing so by their working conditions.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1982. 68 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 551)This paper outlines the inclusion of communication support in various lending sectors of the World Bank, describes how communication support activities should be designed and carried out during the project cycle, and addresses some common problems and issues that should be kept in mind when developing and implementing these activities. Communication support refers to information, motivation, or education activities which are designed to help achieve the objectives of a parent project through creating a favorable social climate for change. Usually such activities are financed under the same loan as the parent project. By fiscal year 1979 the World Bank had lent some US$183 million for communication support, usually for education, agriculture and rural development, and population, health, and nutrition. Potential benefits of communication support include facilitating change among project populations, helping create an effective implementing agency, coping with negative behavior or attitudes, and helping prevent negative impact. The World Bank experiences with communication support in 7 sectors of Bank lending are briefly described, including education; population, health and nutrition; agriculture; urban projects; water and wastes; transportation; and telecommunications. Various steps in the design process are then detailed, including identification of institutional arrangements, definition of objectives, identification and segmentation of the people to be reached, identification of the timing and time frame, selection of channels, decisions on communication style, technique and content, design of pretesting, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, and costing. Among issues in the design of communication support programs that are discussed are inclusion of communication support versus managerial complexity; centralization versus decentralization; single agency versus multi-agency responsibility; in-house responsibility versus contracting out; mass media versus personal channels; and overdesign versus underdesign.
Evaluation of population education projects executed by the ILO in the Asia and Pacific region: general conclusions and recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. xiii, 27,  p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has provided funds over the past decade to the International Labor Organization (ILO) or to Governments to undertake population education activities directed at the organized sector. About 44% of this assistance has gone to UNFPA-funded regional and country projects in the Asia and Pacific Region. In order to assess these projects, a review of 21 projects took place and 8 projects in 3 countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) were visited by Evalutation Missions. The Missions found that the main immediate objective for all projects was to stimulate awareness and interest in family planning and to support population education. All projects but one were directed at industrial workers, and the provision of family planning was explicitly stated as an objective in 2 projects. All projects had a goal to institutionalise population education as a part of the agency/ministry implementing the projects. The Mission concluded that the greatest effect of these types of projects had been in the change of attitude and behavior of top and middle level management toward family planning for their workers, as illustrated by conduct of in-plant classes for population education on company time and provision of incentives for family planning acceptors. At the worker level, as a result of the extensive training activities, there is now a large cadre of trained worker motivators in many industrial establishments who can influence fellow workers and potentially other members of the community to accept family planning. However, no information was available, except for 2 projects evaluated, to assess the effects of the projects on contraceptive use. It was noted that some projects had focused mainly on groups already motivated towards family planning; more emphasis should be put on reaching audiences not yet motivated for family planning. The institutionalization of population education within the implementing agents of the projects is likely to be achieved in most of the projects evaluated, although this objective cannot be fully evaluated at this point in time. General conclusions and recommendations were made in 4 areas: planning of projects, approach to reach the organized sector, implementation of projects and administration of projects.