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Politics and population. U.S. assistance for international population programs in the Reagan Administration.
[Unpublished] .  p.US support for family planning programs in developing nations has become more and more controversial as the existing consensus on the rationale for these programs has been lost. This article discusses the major issues of the current debate on international family planning assistance and some of the reasons why bipartisan support for the program has eroded in recent years. During the 1960s, 2 factors contributed to the advent of the international family planning movement: the development of modern contraceptive technology in the form of the oral contraceptive (OC) and the IUD, technologies which, it was believed, could be made readily available and used easily, even in the poorest developing countries; and the growing realization that as mortality rates were declining rapidly due to improved health care in developing countries, the rate of population growth was increasing at a pace never before achieved. After some initial reluctance, efforts to stabilize population growth rates came to be accepted as in the US national interest, and by the 1970s both Republican and Democratic administrations and bipartisan congressional coalitions supported regular increases in funding for population programs as part of the foreign aid program. The US, together with several European countries, was instrumental in the development and early support for the UN Fund for Population Activities and the nongovernmental International Planned Parenthood Federation. In general, US support for international population programs was not a controversial issue in foreign aid debates until last year. Since President Reagan took office in January 1981, both the advocates and opponents of population programs have become more active and organized. Foreign aid in general and international family planning programs in particular are a favorite target for conservative groups, which include several antiabortion groups. Consequently, early in the Reagan administration efforts were made to slash the foreign aid budget. These efforts went so far as to propose eliminating all funding for international family planning programs. These efforts failed, and the US maintained its position as preeminent donor for family planning until 1984. In its final version, the US policy paper for the 1984 Mexico City Conference made 2 important revisions regarding US international population policy: the explanation of population growth as a "neutral phenomenon," caused by counterproductive, statist economic policies in poor countries, for which the suggested remedy is free market economic reform; and the assertion that the US does not consider abortion an acceptable element of family planning programs and will not contribute to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. How this controversy over US International population policy is resolved depends largely on how Congress defines the issue.
Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
Republic of Indonesia. Population education in schools and institutions of Islamic education and higher education. Population education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 11 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P06)This project summary concerns population education in schools of Islamic Education and Higher Education in Indonesia between 1979-81. Funding was provided by UNFPA and the Indonesian government. The long term objectives were to: 1) develop an understanding of population policies and programs in Indonesia, 2) develop an understanding of the factors causing population change and their relationship with the overall development of the country, and 3) develop means to critically examine population issues. Short term objectives were to: 1) conduct a pilot project for the introduction of population education into curricula of primary, secondary, and higher secondary schools (materials, methods, training of teachers), 2) introduce population education into a limited number of teacher training schools, and 3) introduce population education as an integral part of the undergraduate teaching program in all 14 State Islamic institutions.
LAKARTIDNINGEN. 1974 Sep 25; 71(39):3647-9.The activities of physicians in relation to population change contribute to improvements in family, community, and individual health needs. Physicians require an understanding of the complexities and interacting effects of population issues at the global, national, subnational, community, and family levels. Factors that influence fertility, mortality, morbidity, and migration should be known to physicians, along with social, economic, political, and religious issues that may affect human behavior. Physicians should be well versed in the interrelationships between reproduction and health. Beliefs, attitudes, and life practices of the people with whom the physician works should be known and understood well enough for him to identify the aspirations of his clients. All fertility regulation methods and services, their advantages and limitations, should also be known. The role of the physician in fertility regulating services will include planning, supervision, and evaluation; national, community, and individual counseling; education, training and research; and, program monitoring and full membership in the health team. The physician should make all fertility regulation services available to all who want or need them by promoting and supporting modern delivery systems which use all appropriate community resources.
New York, Population Council, 1979 Oct. 68 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 48)After outlining various problems posed by the growth or decline of population and the class of feasible means available to governments for dealing with them, the authors pose the question of whether important ethical issues are raised by interventionist policies actually in use today. These policy options are surveyed in detail and shown to fall into 3 categories of government intervention: 1) Limitations imposed on access to modern methods of fertility control. 2) Incentives and disincentives of various kinds. 3) Politically organized peer pressure. With regard to ethical issues raised by these policies, the authors invert the traditional procedure in the ethical literature of first providing an overarching ethical theory and then deducing consequences pertaining to particular issues -- in this case population controversies. Instead, they adopt a contextual and piecemeal approach to the ethical concerns which views ethics as a species of decision making, resting on agreed-upon premises and proceeding to substantive conclusions as to what sort of action should be taken in particular situations. Proceeding to examine the 3 sets of policies from this perspective, they find limitations on access and incentive programs ethically permissible provided certain safeguards and intuitive conditions are satisfied. The 2nd category -- politically organized peer pressure -- is found unethical except under stringent conditions and where other approaches have been tried first. In the final section of the paper, the authors clarify aspects of the ethical framework underlying their judgments on the policy and raise and discuss a number of subsidiary problems. (Author's)
In: Key Issues in Population Policy: Problems, Options, and Recommendations for Action. E. Glassheim, C. Cargille and C. Hoffman, eds. Wash., D.C., University Press of America, 1978, pp. 49-58This paper traces the history of United Nations activity in the population field. In the late 1960's, the U.N.'s role was limited to demographic research, bringing population problems to the attention of member governments. As governments slowly became aware, some countries, notably the United States and Sweden, began to provide assistance to countries establishing population programs. However, bilateral foreign aid became unwelcome in the 1960's and Sweden, the United States and other countries suggested multilateral assistance coordinated through the United Nations. The United Nations was not prepared to take on this new role. A trust fund, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), was established to help U.N. agencies with population work. But the agencies themselves were not eager to get involved; WHO did not consider population a health problem; UNESCO did not take a leadership position. UNFPA money now goes to support staff working on population in several agencies but there is no central coordination, funding or administration. The World Bank has made a definite commitment to population control but its record of success in this area is not impressive. The discussion centered on the reasons for the Bank's failure in the population field.
Communication activities that promote behavior change in clients of family planning programs: resources and constraints.
In: L. Saunders, ed. IEC Strategies: Their Role in Promoting Behavior Change in Family and Population Planning. Honolulu, East-West Communication Institute, July 1977, pp. 77-86Add to my documents.
(Description of the World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction.) (Statement, May 2, 1978))
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 213-286The World Health Organization's Special Programme of research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction is supported by 150 member governments spending over 15 million dollars on 5 specific areas of research: 1) effectiveness of existing birth control methods; 2) development of new methods; 3) psychosocial factors and health service delivery; 4) health rationale for family planning; and 5) infertility. A primary goal of the program is to strengthen fertility research within the developing country. Some results of WHO research on specific contraceptive practices found the following. Depo-Provera was frequently discontinued because the amenorrhea percentage over 90 days increased from 13% to 35% during the 4th injection interval. Male contraceptives are acceptable to 50% of men in Fiji, India, Korea, Mexico and the United States with a daily pill more desirable than a monthly injection. A majority of women believe that menstruation is the removal of impure blood, and that intercourse should not occur at that time.
Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
Country Profiles. 1970 Oct; 1-12.The report gives population trends and the status of family planning projects in Ghana. A general background account of Ghana's demographics (size and growth patterns, redistribution trends, urban/rural distribution, religious and ethnic composition, economic status, literacy, future trends, and social/economic groups and attitudes) is discussed. The relationships of national income, size and quality of the labor force, agricultural labor and productivity, public education, and health to the population's growth is summarized. Development of a population policy is described along with major recommendations for a national policy. The organization and structure of the national family planning program is set forth along with a table of "planning targets for increasing the use of contraceptives". Current practices of birth control are reviewed; supportive state and international agencies' roles are discussed; a prognosis of population planning efforts concludes the report.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.