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Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1990 Oct. iii, 29 p.This summary provides key background information for the design and development of a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) project in Venezuela. The country situation is described by providing a map; graphs illustrating population growth, age structure, total fertility rate, and infant mortality rate; the demographic characteristics of the population; the social situation; and leading economic indicators and factors. The population/family planning (FP) environment is then described in terms of the national population policy and goals, the legal and regulatory environment, the media, other international donor agencies and nongovernmental organizations active in the field of population, and the commercial contraceptive market. Available data are then presented on contraceptive usage by methods, the most available methods in the country, discontinuation, abortion, maternal age, needs, desired family size, and contraceptive awareness. The summary lists the following implications for project design from the point of view of the consumer: 1) the most recent data (1977) indicated an unmet need for FP, but more recent data must be obtained to access current demand; 2) more data are needed on the benefits and barriers to oral contraceptive and condom use; 3) data are needed on current use rates, sources of supply, and knowledge of correct use of oral contraceptives (OCs); 4) a significant target population exists for OCs and condoms; 5) marketing strategies should influence women to use modern contraceptives instead of abortion to limit family size. Project implications resulting from the market situation are that 1) despite the fact that commercial distribution networks within urban centers (83% of the population) are well-developed, contraceptives are not widely available at the retail level and are expensive; 2) obstacles to the commercial contraceptive industry exist at the importer, retailer, and consumer levels; and 3) most homes have radios and televisions, but all advertising must be government-approved, and the government has never approved contraceptive advertising. Appended to this document are charts showing 1) fertility rates by region, 2) urban and rural population growth, 3) an analysis of the urban population, 4) the incidence of abortion among current contraceptive users, 5) an analysis of the female population of reproductive age, 6) the age breakdown of women who desire no more children, 7) the contraceptive method used by women who desire no more children, and 8) desired family size.
SCIENCE. 1991 Oct 25; 254:511-2.The 1st Director of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) abruptly resigned March, 1990. Jonathan Mann led the GPA in an innovative, aggressive, and comparatively non-bureaucratic style since its inception in 1986, building a staff of nearly 200 under an eventual 1990 budget of $90 million. Mann's non-conformist style and ever-growing budget, however, ran counter to the bureaucratic forces in WHO, causing him to leave for a position at Harvard University. A 12-year WHO veteran, Michael H. Merson succeeded Mann, and has since managed the GPA in a more conventional, bureaucratic manner. Senior staff have resigned, and the budget will drop to only $75 million for 1992. Staff replacements are used to the bureaucratic structure and demands of WHO, but lack experience in the field of AIDS. This paper discusses the markedly different management styles and approaches of Merson and Mann, with concern voiced over the future of the GPA. Critics are uncertain of GPA's present direction, and whether or not it is a necessary, positive change in the fight against the AIDS pandemic. As AIDS appears with less frequency and centrality i the world's media, the GPA is needed now even more than just a few years ago to inform the world of the dangers of AIDS. Merson is expected to promote relatively simple treatment options for AIDS, with some emphasis upon technological fixes like the condom. With cuts to the behavioral research budget, however, it is almost certain that inadequate steps will be taken to effect behavioral change for the prevention and control of HIV infection.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 6,  p.Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
AIDS WATCH. 1989; (8):8.The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.
JORDEMODERN. 1987 Jun; 100(6):172-3.As long as breast-feeding in the developing and developed countries is threatened by bottle-feeding and too early introduction of supplementary diets, the discussion about how breast-feeding is best protected must be kept alive within the organizations and the mass media. Representatives of the Swedish private organizations' foreign assistance programs participated in a seminar on April 3, 1987 in Stockholm, arranged by the Nordic Work Group for International Breast-Feeding Questions in cooperation with International Child Health (ICH). Breast-feeding increased strongly in Sweden during the 1970s, but bottle-feeding is still the norm in large parts of Europe and continues to increase in the developing countries. 6 years have passed since the international code for marketing of breast milk substitutes (even called the child food code) was approved by WHO, in 1981. It contains rules that limit companies' marketing efforts and establish responsibilities and duties that apply to health personnel. The application of these rules is slow and differences between company policies and practice exist. In a larger perspective, we are dealing with the position and significance of woman and children within the family and society. During a WHO meeting in 1986, a resolution was adopted that reinforces the content of the code, e.g., it stops the distribution of free breast milk substitutes to the hospital, where free samples are often given to leaving mothers. The WHO countries also expressed negative feeling toward marketing child food during a period where breast-feeding may be affected negatively. How the resolution is going to be implemented in Sweden is not yet known. There are signs that even in Sweden the existence of the code is being forgotten. The seminar participants recommended that the Social Board issue a simplified and easily read reminder about the code for wider distribution in Sweden.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
[Unpublished] July, 1979. 49 p.This study assesses the effectiveness of family planning education in the Republic of Korea over the past 2 decades. Target populations in various metropolitan areas were studied regarding attitudes toward family planning knowledge, contraceptive behavior, media and personal contacts on family planning, number and gender preferences, and spacing preferences. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were taken into account. Statistics were compiled by area and analyses are presented. Use of more mass media is suggested to get information on family planning across to more people. It is important to extend the range and quality of family planning services, most especially to provide the best information about contraceptive methods.
Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 5 p.All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a British colony in the South Pacific, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA was established in 1969 and the government is now integrating family planning into its Maternal and Child Health Services. Public opinion generally favors family planning and family planning education. Charts of services provided over a period of years by the FPA show increasing numbers of acceptors, with the IUD the contin ually increasing favorite. Current educational, research, and evaluation work is summarized. Other organizations have aided in the campaign for family planning.
In: Diczfalusy, E. and Borel, U., eds. Control of human fertility. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Nobel Symposium, Sodergarn, Lidingo, Sweden, May 27-29, 1970. New York, Wiley, 1971. 39-51.A drug delivery system providing for a controlled release of progestogen and affecting ovulation and steroidogenesis minimally would deal effectively with some of the problems associated with contraception. 2 systems being developed which fit these criteria are the primary topics of discourse in this article. In 1 system an implant consists of a polymer membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and contains the progestogen in crystalline form. Major problems with the PDS implants include a lack of intraindividual constance of release and interindividual variation in the slope of the decay in release. In the second system the implant consists of a lipid-steroid membrane containing a steroid. In this implant the concentration of the steroid in the membrane and the nature of the lipid phase may be important in determining the pattern of release. In vivo metabolic studies with lipid-steroid pellets are limited, but the patterns of output may be similar to those seen with PDS implants. Because of rate problems, a shorter regime slow-release implant seems more feasible than a longer lasting system. Surgical difficulties associated with the implantation and removal of the PDS implant make the choice of a lipid-steroid micropellet preparation more feasible for a short-term regimen. The discussion, following the main body of the article, focuses primarily on problems associated with implants.
Report of the regional meeting on social and cultural factors affecting the acceptance, continuation and discontinuation of family planning practice.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1983. 32 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 56)The Regional Meeting on Social and Cultural Factors Affecting the Acceptance, Continuation and Discontinuation of Family Planning Practice was held at Pattya, Thailand from November 2 to 8, 1982. Objectives identified at the meeting were: 1) to review and exchange information among the countries of the region on the factors affecting the acceptance, continuation and discontinuation of family planning practice; 2) to recommend, on the basis of available experience in the region, strategies and experimental measures for overcoming the critical communication as well as other social and cultural barriers adversely affecting the practice of family planning; 3) to enhance regional cooperation in conducting further necessary research on the sociocultural factors affecting decision making on the use continuation of contraceptive methods by suggesting an appropriate conceptual framework and guidelines for a methodology in conducting such regional or subregional studies; 4) to suggest strategies for promoting improved evaluation and monitoring systems for family planning programs which take into account the extent and nature of the continuation and discontinuation of family planning practice. 8 countries participated: Bangladesh, India, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Recommended communication strategies to facilitate the continuation of family planning practice are: 1) improvement of the instructional or counseling activities by family planning personnel concerning technical information on contraceptive methods to counteract unfavorable rumors on contraceptive use. 2) Utilizing mass media and interpersonal channels to reinforce directly the continuance of family planning practice, as an alternative to simply promoting 1st acceptance. 3) Counteract unfavorable rumors related to contraceptive use by identifying influential persons at key locations in the communication networks of local communities and by having them serve as "trouble shooters" should unfavorable rumors arise. 4) Organize communication to increase the level of social support for acceptors of family planning. Design special communication strategies to increase acceptability of a small family norm, and to decrease fatalistic attitudes toward pregnancy and childbirth.